ACPICR GUIDELINES (2016) Association of Chartered Physiotherapists in Cardiac Rehabilitation: Early activity after cardiac surgery.

ACPICR GUIDELINES (2012) Association of Chartered Physiotherapists in Cardiac Rehabilitation: Role of the Physiotherapists in Cardiac Rehabilitation.

ACPICR GUIDELINES (2009) Association of Chartered Physiotherapists in Cardiac Rehabilitation. Standards for Physical Activity and Exercise in the Cardiac Population

AMERICAN COLLEGE OF CARDIOLOGY / AMERICAN HEART ASSOCIATION GUIDELINES for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (2015)



NICE Guideline (2013) Myocardial infarction with ST-segment elevation: acute management (CG167)

NICE Guideline (2013) Myocardial infarction: cardiac rehabilitation and prevention of further MI (CG172)





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• lung function tests before heart surgery re-classified a third of patients as to whether they had COPD or not

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Adams L, Bartlett HJ, Bellett HJ et al (2013) Timed Up and Go Tests in cardiac rehabilitation: reliability and comparison with the 6-minute walk test. J Cardiopulm Rehab Prev, 33, 2, 99 - 105

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Aisu H, Saito M, Inaba S et al (2017) Association of worsening arterial stiffness with incident heart failure in asymptomatic patients with cardiovascular risk factors. Hypertens Res; 40(2):173-180. doi: 10.1038/hr.2016.116

Akintade BF, Chapa D, Freidman E et al (2015) The influence of depression and anxiety symptoms on health-related quality of life in patients with atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter. J Cardiovasc Nurs; 30(1):66-73. doi: 10.1097/JCN.0000000000000107

Akiyode O (2013) Peripheral arterial disease. Topics Geriatr Rehab; 29(3):179-86

Alagiakrishnan K (2013) Medication management of chronic heart failure in older adults. Drugs Aging; 30(10):765-82

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• patients with acute HF do not need to restrict their sodium and water intake

Allgulander C (2016) Anxiety as a risk factor in cardiovascular disease. Curr Opin Psychiatry; 29(1):13-17
• 'anxiety has now emerged as perhaps the most important risk factor for cardiovascular disease'

Alpert MA, Lavie CJ, Agrawal H et al (2016) Cardiac effects of obesity: pathophysiologic, clinical, and prognostic consequences - a review. J Cardiopulm Rehabil Prev; 36(1):1-11. doi: 10.1097/HCR.0000000000000147

Al-Zaiti (2013) Syncope and cardiac rhythms. Am J Crit Care, 22(4):361-2

Alastalo H, Räikkönen K, Pesonen A-K et al (2012) cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in Finnish men and women separated temporarily from their parents in childhood—a life course study. Psychosom Med, 74, 583-587

Ambrosini GL (2013) Prospective associations between sugar-sweetened beverage intakes and cardiometabolic risk factors in adolescents. Am J Clin Nutr; 98(2): 327-334. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.112.051383

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• cardiac rehab increases V̇O2peak by 14-31%

Andrechuk CR (2016) Sleep quality and adverse outcomes for patients with acute myocardial infarction. J Clin Nurs; 25(1-2):223-30. doi: 10.1111/jocn.13051
• poor sleep quality is frequent in hospitalised patients with acute MI and hinders recovery

Andrews LK (2013) “I'd eat a bucket of nails if you told me it would help me sleep:” Perceptions of insomnia and its treatment in patients with stable heart failure. Heart Lung; 42(4):339-345

Antonicelli R, Spazzafumo L, Scalvini S et al (2016) Exercise: a “new drug” for elderly patients with chronic heart failure. Aging (Albany NY); 8(5):860-869. doi: 10.18632/aging.100901.

Anyaegbu E, Dharnidharka VR (2014) Hypertension in the teenager. Pediatr Clin North Am; 61(1):131-51. doi: 10.1016/j.pcl.2013.09.011

Apor P (2016) Preventive and curative value of yoga in cardiometabolic diseases. Orv Hetil; 157(9):323-7. doi: 10.1556/650.2016.30361

Arena R, Lavie CJ, Cahalin LP et al (2016) Transforming cardiac rehabilitation into broad-based healthy lifestyle programs to combat noncommunicable disease. Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther; 14(1):23-36. doi: 10.1586/14779072.2016.1107475

Åsa C (2012) Aquatic exercise is effective in improving exercise performance in patients with heart failure and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med: 349209. doi: 10.1155/2012/349209

Baber U, Gutierrez O, Levitan EB et al (2013) Risk for recurrent coronary heart disease and all-cause mortality among individuals with chronic kidney disease compared with diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, and cigarette smokers. Am Heart J; 166(2):373-380.e2

Baldasseroni S, Pratesi A, Francini S et al (2016) Cardiac rehabilitation in very old adults: effect of baseline functional capacity on treatment effectiveness. J Am Geriatr Soc; 64(8):1640-5. doi: 10.1111/jgs.14239
• cardiac rehab increases peak oxygen consumption, exercise tolerance and muscle strength in patients over age 75, particularly in those with poorer baseline performance

Banerjee A (2015) Poverty, development and cardiovascular trials: More questions than answers? Heart;101(4)::245-247. doi:10.1136/heartjnl-2014-306946

Bang CN, Okin PM (2014) Statin treatment, new-onset diabetes, and other adverse effects: a systematic review. Curr Cardiol Rep; 16(3):461. doi: 10.1007/s11886-013-0461-4

Barber J (2015) A Simple education tool for ventricular assist device patients and their caregivers. J Cardiovasc Nurs; 30(3):E1-E10. doi: 10.1097/jcn.0000000000000122

Bardai A, Blom MT, van Noord C et al (2015) Sudden cardiac death is associated both with epilepsy and with use of antiepileptic medications. Heart;101(1):17-22. doi:10.1136/heartjnl-2014-305664

Bauters F, Rietzschel ER, Hertegonne KB et al (2016) The link between obstructive sleep apnea and cardiovascular disease. Curr Atheroscler Rep; 18(1):1. doi: 10.1007/s11883-015-0556-z

Beckie TM, Beckstead JW, Kip KE et al (2014) Improvements in heart rate recovery among women after cardiac rehabilitation completion. J Cardiovasc Nurs; 29(1):38-47. doi: 10.1097/JCN.0b013e31827324e2

Beckstead JW, Pezzo MV, Beckie TM et al (2014) Physicians' tacit and stated policies for determining patient benefit and referral to cardiac rehabilitation. Med Decis Making; 34(1):63-74. doi: 10.1177/0272989X13492017
• cardiac rehabilitation reduces morbidity and mortality
• gender bias towards men

Berardi C (2013) Heart failure performance measures: eligibility and implementation in the community. Am Heart J; 166(1):76-82

Berg SK, Moons P, Christensen AV et al (2015) Clinical effects and implications of cardiac rehabilitation for implantable cardioverter defibrillator patients. J Cardiovasc Nurs; 30(2):420-427. doi: 10.1097/jcn.0000000000000179

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Besnier F, Labrunée M, Pathak A et al (2016) Exercise training-induced modification in autonomic nervous system: an update for cardiac patients. Ann Physical Rehab Med; 60(1):27-35

Black PH, Garbutt LD (2002) Stress, inflammation and cardiovascular disease. J Psychosom Res, 52, 1-23
• mechanism of stress leading to atherosclerosis

Blazek A (2013) Exercise-mediated changes in high-density lipoprotein: Impact on form and function. Am Heart J; 166(3):392-400

Blum A (2009) Treating heart failure with sildenafil. Congest Heart Fail. 15(4):181-5
• viagra can help relieve dyspnoea

Bondon-Guitton E, Combret S, Pérault-Pochat MC et al (2016) Cardiovascular risk profile of patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease during nilotinib therapy. Target Oncol; 11(4):549-52. doi: 10.1007/s11523-016-0417-x

Bourdier G, Flore P, Sanchez H et al (2016) High-intensity training reduces intermittent hypoxia-induced ER stress and myocardial infarct size. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol; 310(2):H279-H289. doi: 10.1152/ajpheart.00448.2015

Bradley JM, Cryar KA (2013) Exposure to diesel exhaust particulates induces cardiac dysfunction and remodeling. J Appl Phys; 115(7):1099-1106. doi: 10.1152/japplphysiol.00343.2013

Bratzke LC, Moser DK, Pelter MM et al (2016) Evidence-based heart failure medications and cognition. J Cardiovasc Nurs; 31(1):62-8. doi: 10.1097/JCN.0000000000000216.

Brook RD, Appel LJ, Rubenfire M et al (2013) Beyond medications and diet: alternative approaches to lowering blood pressure: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Hypertension. 2013 Jun;61(6):1360-83. doi: 10.1161/HYP.0b013e318293645f.

Brusselle G, Bracke K, Pauw M (2017) Peripheral artery disease in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am J Respir Crit Care Med; 195(2):148-50

Buber J, Rhodes J (2014) Exercise physiology and testing in adult patients with congenital heart disease. Heart Failure Clin; 10(1):23-33

Burg MM, Soufer R (2016) Post-traumatic stress disorder and cardiovascular disease. Curr Cardiol Rep; 18(10):94. doi: 10.1007/s11886-016-0770-5

Cabello JB et al (2013) Oxygen therapy for acute myocardial infarction. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 8. no: CD007160. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD007160.pub3
• no evidence for routine use of O2 with MI; some evidence suggesting possible harm.

Callender T, Rahimi K (2015) Heart failure and iron deficiency anaemia: a complex dance. Heart;101(8):101:579-580. doi:10.1136/heartjnl-2014-307227

Carney RM, Freedland KE, Steinmeyer B et al (2016) Cardiac risk markers and response to depression treatment in patients with coronary heart disease. Psychosom Med; 78(1):49-59. doi: 10.1097/PSY.0000000000000245
• improvement in depression correlates with improvement in sleep and physical activity

Casillas J-M, Gudjoncik A, Gremeaux V et al (2017) Assessment tools for personalizing training intensity during cardiac rehabilitation. Ann Physical Rehab Med; 60(1):43-49

Cernes R, Zimlichman R (2015) RESPeRATE: the role of paced breathing in hypertension treatment. J Am Soc Hypertens; 9(1):38-47. doi: 10.1016/j.jash.2014.10.002

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Chen JT, Lin TH, Voon WC et al (2016) Beneficial effects of home-based cardiac rehabilitation on metabolic profiles in coronary heart-disease patients. Kaohsiung J Med Sci; 32(5):267-75. doi: 10.1016/j.kjms.2016.04.014

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Chen Y, Liu C, Lu W et al (2016) Clinical characteristics and risk factors of pulmonary hypertension associated with chronic respiratory diseases: a retrospective study. J Thorac Dis; 8(3):350-8. doi: 10.21037/jtd.2016.02.58
• SOB is the most common symptom

Chesbro SB (2013) Reliability of ankle-brachial index measurements. Topics Geriatr Rehab; 29(3):195-202

Chiari S et al (2013) Dynamic pulmonary hyperinflation occurs without expiratory flow limitation in chronic heart failure during exercise. Resp Physiol Neurobiol; 189(1):34-41

Chou AY, Prakash R, Rajala J et al (2016) The first dedicated cardiac rehabilitation program for patients with spontaneous coronary artery dissection: description and initial results. Can J Cardiol; 32(4):554-60. doi: 10.1016/j.cjca.2016.01.009

Chow CK, Ariyarathna N, Islam SM et al (2016) mHealth in cardiovascular health care. Heart Lung Circ; 25(8):802-7. doi: 10.1016/j.hlc.2016.04.009
• iPhone ECG

Clark AM (2013) Factors influencing participation in cardiac rehabilitation programmes after referral and initial attendance: qualitative systematic review and meta-synthesis. Clin Rehab, 27(10):948-59

Clark AP, McDougall G, Riegel R et al (2015) Health status and self-care outcomes after an education-support intervention for people with chronic heart failure. J Cardiovasc Nurs; 30(4s):s3-s13. doi: 10.1097/jcn.0000000000000169
• education for patients with heart failure improves function and quality of life

Cleland JG (2016) Prevalence and outcomes of anemia and hematinic deficiencies in patients with chronic heart failure. JAMA Cardiol; 1(5):539-47. doi: 10.1001/jamacardio.2016.1161

Coffeng JK, van der Ploeg HP, Castellano JM et al (2017) A 30-month worksite-based lifestyle program to promote cardiovascular health in middle-aged bank employees: design of the TANSNIP-PESA randomized controlled trial. Am Heart J; 184:121–132
• Atherosclerosis takes decades to produce symptoms

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Collins EG, McBurney C, Butler J et al (2016) The effects of walking or walking-with-poles training on tissue oxygenation in patients with peripheral arterial disease. Internat J Vasc Med; 2012:985025. doi:10.1155/2012/985025

Conraads VM, Beckers, PJ (2010) Exercise training in heart failure: practical guidance. Heart, 96(24):2025-31

Conway A, Schadewaldt V, Clark R et al (2013) The psychological experiences of adult heart transplant recipients: A systematic review and meta-summary of qualitative findings. Heart Lung; 42(6):449-455

Crane PB (2005) Fatigue and physical activity in older women after myocardial infarction. Heart Lung, 34, 1, 30-38
• post-MI fatigue is perceived as different from fatigue before the MI. Depression, sleep, and fatigue were inter-related

Crowe FL, Appleby PN, Travis RC et al (2013) Risk of hospitalization or death from ischemic heart disease among British vegetarians and nonvegetarians: results from the EPIC-Oxford cohort study. Am J Clin Nutr; 97(3):597-603. doi:10.3945/ajcn.112.044073
• vegetarians have reduced risk of heart disease

Crowson CS (2013) Rheumatoid arthritis and cardiovascular disease. Am Heart J; 166(4):622-628

Cubbon RM, Ruff N, Groves D et al (2016) Ambulatory heart rate range predicts mode-specific mortality and hospitalisation in chronic heart failure. Heart; 102(3):223-9. doi: 10.1136/heartjnl-2015-308428

Dalal HM, Doherty P, Taylor RS (2015) Cardiac rehabilitation. BMJ; 351:h5000. doi: 10.1136/bmj.h5000

D'Alesandro MA (2016) Focusing on lower extremity DVT. Nursing2016; 46(4): 28-35

Darnall BD (2009) Self-delivered home-based mirror therapy for lower limb phantom pain. Am J Phys Med Rehabil, 88, 78-81

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DeGuire S et al (1992) Hyperventilation syndrome and the assessment of treatment for functional cardiac symptoms. Am J Cardiol, 70, 673-77.!&_cdi=4876&view=c&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=63e4e6cb1484d2d8c3371e49ee77bae1
• up to 90% of noncardiac chest pain is thought to be associated with HVS

Delise P (2013) Long-term effect of continuing sports activity in competitive athletes with frequent ventricular premature complexes and apparently normal heart. Am J Cardiol; 112(9):1396-1402

De Souza A (2004) Descriptors of dyspnea by patients with COPD versus congestive heart failure. Heart Lung, 33, 2, 102-110

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Doukky R, Avery E, Mangla A et al (2016) Impact of dietary sodium restriction on heart failure outcomes. JACC Heart Fail; 4(1):24-35. doi: 10.1016/j.jchf.2015.08.007
• sodium restriction may have a detrimental impact on outcome

Drozdz T, Bilo G, Debicka-Dabrowska D et al (2016) Blood pressure changes in patients with chronic heart failure undergoing slow breathing training. Blood Press; 25(1):4-10. doi: 10.3109/08037051.2016.1099800
• slow breathing training shows a non-significant tendency to improve QoL

Dudink E et al (2017) Acute cardioversion vs a wait-and-see approach for recent-onset symptomatic atrial fibrillation in the emergency department: rationale and design of the randomized ACWAS trial. Am Heart J; 183:49–53

Dugani S, Gaziano TA (2016) 25 by 25: Achieving global reduction in cardiovascular mortality. Curr Cardiol Rep; 18(1):10. doi: 10.1007/s11886-015-0679-4
• cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of global mortality

Ehlken N, Lichtblau M, Klose H et al (2016) Exercise training improves peak oxygen consumption and haemodynamics in patients with severe pulmonary arterial hypertension and inoperable chronic thrombo-embolic pulmonary hypertension: a prospective, randomized, controlled trial. Eur Heart J; 37(1):35-44. doi: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehv337
• low-dose exercise training 4-7 days/week significantly improved peak VO2/kg, haemodynamics, and further clinically relevant parameters

Eijsvogels T (2010) Effect of prolonged walking on cardiac troponin levels. Am J Cardiol, 105, 2, 267-72
• a 4-day-long distance walk can damage heart muscle in patients at risk.

Elder A, Japp A, Verghese A (2016) How valuable is physical examination of the cardiovascular system? BMJ; 354:i3309. doi: 10.1136/bmj.i3309

Ellulu MS, Patimah I, Khaza'ai H et al (2016) Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease: a review of initiators and protective factors. Inflammopharmacology; 24(1):1-10. doi: 10.1007/s10787-015-0255-y

Enriquez JR (2013) Association of chronic lung disease with treatments and outcomes patients with acute myocardial infarction. Am Heart J; 165(1):43-9. doi: 10.1016/j.ahj.2012.09.010
• coronary heart disease has a prevalence similar to chronic lung disease

Ernstsen L, Rangul V, Nauman J et al (2016) Protective effect of regular physical activity on depression after myocardial infarction: the HUNT study online extra. Am J Med; 129(1):p82–88.e1. doi:
• following myocardial infarction, regular physical activity has been observed to provide a long-term protective effect on the development of depression

ESH/ESC (2013) Guidelines for the management of arterial hypertension. Eur Heart J; 34(28):2159-219

Evans RA (2011) Developing the model of pulmonary rehabilitation for chronic heart failure. Chron Respir Dis, 8, 259-69
• HF patients can be successfully trained with COPD patients in a pulmonary rehabilitation programme

Fergenbaum J, Bermingham S, Drahn M et al (2015) Care in the home for the management of chronic heart failure: systematic review and cost-effectiveness analysis. J Cardiovasc Nurs; 30(4s):s44-s51. doi: 10.1097/jcn.0000000000000235
• home-based management for heart failue patients reduces mortality and hospitalization

Fernandez-Mendoza J, He F, Vgontzas AN et al (2017) Objective short sleep duration modifies the relationship between hypertension and all-cause mortality. J Hypertens; 35(4):830-836. doi: 10.1097/HJH.0000000000001253.

Ferreira S (2010) Prevalence and characteristics of sleep apnoea in patients with stable heart failure. BMC Pulm Med, 10, 9, doi:10.1186/1471-2466-10-9

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Filos D, Triantafyllidis A, Chouvarda (2016) I PATHway: decision support in exercise programmes for cardiac rehabilitation. Stud Health Technol Inform; 224:40-5

Fournier M, Radel R, Tifratene K et al (2016) Protocol of the “As du Coeur” study: a randomized controlled trial on physical activity maintenance in cardiovascular patients. BMC Cardiovascular Dis;16(1):160. doi: 10.1186/s12872-016-0325-0.

Fox H (2017) Positive airway pressure therapy in heart failure patients: long-term effects on lung function. Resp Physiol Neurobiol; 238:41-46
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• PE is the leading preventable cause of death in hospital patients

Franz CA (2016) Marijuana use and cardiovascular disease. Cardiol Rev; 24(4):158-62. doi: 10.1097/CRD.0000000000000103

Fukuta H, Goto T, Wakami K et al (2016) Effects of drug and exercise intervention on functional capacity and quality of life in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Eur J Prev Cardiol; 23(1):78-85. doi: 10.1177/2047487314564729
• exercise training may be a therapeutic option to improve functional capacity and QoL in people with HF and preserved ejection fraction

Gąsiorowski A, Dutkiewicz J (2013) Comprehensive rehabilitation in chronic heart failure. Ann Agric Environ Med; 20(3):606-12

Giannoni A, Raglianti V, Mirizzi G et al (2016) Influence of central apneas and chemoreflex activation on pulmonary artery pressure in chronic heart failure. Int J Cardiol; 202:200-6. doi: 10.1016/j.ijcard.2015.09.007

Ginde S, Bartz PJ, Hill GD et al (2013) Restrictive lung disease is an independent predictor of exercise intolerance in the adult with congenital heart disease. Congenit Heart Dis; 8(3):246-54. doi: 10.1111/chd.12010. Epub 2012 Oct 18.

Gjeilo KH (2010) Chronic pain after cardiac surgery: a prospective study. Acta Anaesth Scand, 54, 1, 70-78
• 10% patients report chronic pain after cardiac surgery

González-Moneo MJ, Sánchez-Benavides G, Verdu-Rotellar JM et al (2016) Ischemic aetiology, self-reported frailty, and gender with respect to cognitive impairment in chronic heart failure patients. BMC Cardiovasc Dis; 16(1):163. doi: 10.1186/s12872-016-0349-5.

Gooding HC, Milliren CE, Austin SB et al (2016) Child abuse, resting blood pressure, and blood pressure reactivity to psychosocial stress. J Pediatr Psychol; 41(1):5-14. doi: 10.1093/jpepsy/jsv040
• potential pathway by which child abuse can leads hypertension

Grant CC, Murray C (2013) A comparison between heart rate and heart rate variability as indicators of cardiac health and fitness. Front Physiol; 4:337

Gremeaux V, Casillas J-M (2017) Cardiovascular rehabilitation. Ann Physical Rehab Med; 60(1):1

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Hajjar I, Goldstein FC, Martin GS et al (2016) Arterial stiffness and cognitive function. Hypertension; 67: 171-175. doi: 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.115.06277
• hypertension leads to cognitive decline

Hamm LF, Jones AM, McBride PE et al (2012) Aerobic exercise intensity assessment and prescription in cardiac rehabilitation: a joint position statement of the European Association for Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation, the American Association of Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Rehabilitation. J Cardiopulm Rehab Prev, 32, 6, 327-350.

Hanson LC, Taylor, NF, McBurney H et al (2016) The 10 m incremental shuttle walk test is a highly reliable field exercise test for patients referred to cardiac rehabilitation: a retest reliability study. Physiother; 102(3):243–248

Hartiala J, Breton CV, Tang WH et al (2016) Ambient air pollution is associated with the severity of coronary atherosclerosis and incident myocardial infarction in patients undergoing elective cardiac evaluation. J Am Heart Assoc; 5(8). pii: e003947. doi: 10.1161/JAHA.116.003947

Haykowsky MJ (2013) Meta-analysis of aerobic interval training on exercise capacity and systolic function in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fractions. Am J Cardiol; 111(10):1466-1469

Heit JA, Spencer FA, White RH (2016) The epidemiology of venous thromboembolism. J Thromb Thrombolysis; 41(1):3-14

Hillegass E, Puthoff M, Frese EM et al (2016) Role of physical therapists in the management of individuals at risk for or diagnosed with venous thromboembolism: evidence-based clinical practice guideline. Phys Ther; 96(2):143-166; doi: 10.2522/ptj.20150264

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Houle J (2013) Daily steps threshold to improve cardiovascular disease risk factors during the year after an acute coronary syndrome J Cardiopulm Rehab Prev; 33(6):406-10

Humbert M, Ghofrani H-A (2016) The molecular targets of approved treatments for pulmonary arterial hypertension. Thorax; 71(1):73-83. doi:10.1136/thoraxjnl-2015-207170

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Isaksen K, Munk PS, Giske R et al (2016) Effects of aerobic interval training on measures of anxiety, depression and quality of life in patients with ischaemic heart failure and an implantable cardioverter defibrillator: a prospective non-randomized trial. J Rehabil Med; 48(3):300-6. doi: 10.2340/16501977-2043

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Izawa KP (2005) Effect of the self-monitoring approach on exercise maintenance during cardiac rehabilitation. Am J Phys Med Rehabil, 84, 313-21;jsessionid=DKqNT2GRt8QzwraLOiiMMCQJMG5OTU3I71lN6F5ZymJBlcyYY4t6!1556005714!-949856145!9001!-1
• self-monitoring may improve exercise maintenance

Jaureguizar KV (2016) Effect of high-intensity interval versus continuous exercise training on functional capacity and quality of life in patients with coronary artery disease: a randomized clinical trial. J Cardiopulm Rehab Prev; 36(2): 96-105

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6MWT = six-minute walk test
AF = atrial fibrillation
ANS = autonomic nervous system
CABG = coronary artery bypass graft
CCU = coronary care unit
CHD = coronary heart disease
CO = cardiac output
CV = cardiovascular
CVD = cardiovascular disease
HF = heart failure
HRQL = health-related quality of life
HVS = hyperventilation syndrome
IABP = intra-aortic balloon pump
JAMA = Journal of the American Medical Association
MI = myocardial infarction
PE = pulmonary embolism
PPI = proton pump inhibitor
QoL = quality of life
SNS = sympathetic nervous system.