Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Global Strategy for the diagnosis, management and prevention of COPD (2016) Update
www.goldcopd.org/uploads/users/files/GOLD_Report_2015_Apr2.pdf

NICE guideline [CG101] Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in over 16s: diagnosis and management (June 2010)
https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/cg101

BTS GUIDELINE (2007) Intermediate care—Hospital-at-Home in COPD. Thorax, 62, 200-210
thorax.bmj.com/content/62/3/200.full?sid=e3f4a871-da6d-4a06-8772-9a7273b353fa

BTS BUNDLE OF CARE (pilot)
https://www.brit-thoracic.org.uk/document-library/audit-and-quality-improvement/care-bundles-project/bts-pilot-care-bundle-project-report-2014/

US GUIDELINES
www.guideline.gov/search/search.aspx?term=copd

RCP (2008) National COPD Audit. Royal College of Physicians and British Thoracic Society
www.rcplondon.ac.uk/clinical-standards/ceeu/Current-work/ncrop/Documents/Report-of-the-National-COPD-Audit-2008-UK-Primary-Care-Organisations-Resources-and-Organisation-of-Care.pdf

UK Department of Health (2010) - Consultation on a Strategy for Services for COPD in England
www.dh.gov.uk/prod_consum_dh/groups/dh_digitalassets/@dh/@en/documents/digitalasset/dh_113280.pdf
• 3 million people have COPD but only 2 million are diagnosed (England)
• re-admissions rising
• patients with respiratory failure should carry alert cards
• 25% of patients are unable to work due to the disease
• people in lowest social groups are 14 times more likely to have COPD
• up to 30% patients currently prescribed LTOT derive no benefit from it, but only half of eligible patients with severe disease receive it

UK Department of Health (2011) - An outcomes strategy for people with COPD and asthma
https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/an-outcomes-strategy-for-people-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-copd-and-asthma-in-england

COPD Assessment Test (CAT)
www.catestonline.org/english/index.htm
• self assessment based on shortened St. George’s Questionnaire.

OSTEOPOROSIS GUIDELINES
www.nos.org.uk/

NUTRITION GUIDELINES
www.guidelines.gov/summary/summary.aspx?ss=15&doc_id=4228&nbr=3233

Resource for health staff:
www.copdexchange.co.uk


Abdellaoui A, Préfaut C, Gouzi F et al (2011) Skeletal muscle effects of electrostimulation after COPD exacerbation: a pilot study. Eur Respir J, 38, 781-788
• electrostimulation helps maintain walking distance

Abdool-Gaffar MS, Ambaram A, Ainslie GM et al (2011) Guideline for the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease – 2011 update. S Afr Med J, 101, 1, 61-73

Agusti A, Hedner J, Marin JM et al (2011) Night-time symptoms: a forgotten dimension of COPD. Eur Respir Rev, 20,183-194. doi:10.1183/09059180.00004311
err.ersjournals.com/content/20/121/183.full?sid=f591c1c5-efb9-4241-9a41-b32b96fe52b8

Agusti A, Gea J, Faner R et al (2016) Biomarkers, the control panel and personalized COPD medicine. Respirology; 21(1):24-33. doi: 10.1111/resp.12585

Albarrati AM, Gale NS, Enright S (2016) A simple and rapid test of physical performance in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis; 11:1785-91. doi: 10.2147/COPD.S106151

Al-Gibouri S, Ringbæk T, Lange P (2013) Neuromuscular electrical stimulation improves the functional level in patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Ugeskr Laeger;175(17):1185-8

Allinson JP, Hardy R, Donaldson GC et al (2016) The presence of chronic mucus hypersecretion across adult life in relation to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease development. Am J Respir Crit Care Med; 193(6):662-672

Anami K, Horie J, Shiranita S-I et al (2013) The factors involved the depression in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Jap J Health Promotion Phys Ther; 3(2):65-69

Annegarn J, Spruit MA, Savelberg HHCM et al (2012) Differences in walking pattern during 6-min walk test between patients with COPD and healthy subjects. PLoS One, 7, 5, e37329. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0037329
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3356256/?tool=pmcentrez

Apps LD, Mitchell KE, Harrison SL et al (2013) The development and pilot testing of the Self-management Programme of Activity, Coping and Education for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (SPACE for COPD). Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis, 8, 317-27. doi: 10.2147/COPD.S40414

Aquino G, Iuliano E, di Cagno A et al (2016) Effects of combined training vs aerobic training on cognitive functions in COPD: a randomized controlled trial. Internat J COPD; 11:711-718. doi: 10.2147/COPD.S96663
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4831596/

Arnardottir RH (2007) No increase in walking distance on repeated tests in COPD patients with exercise-induced hypoxaemia. Advances Physiother, 9, 4, 161 – 168
www.informaworld.com/smpp/content~content=a780589043~db=alhe~order=page
• when using the 12-min walking distance, a practice walk is needed only in those patients who do not desaturate on exercise.

Bahadori K et al (2007) Risk factors of hospitalization and readmission of patients with COPD exacerbation – systematic review. Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis.2(3): 241–251
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2695199/

Bakerly ND (2009) Cost analysis of an integrated care model in the management of acute exacerbations of COPD. Chr Respir Dis, 6, 4, 201-8
crd.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/6/4/201
• hospital-at-home management of COPD exacerbations saves £600 per patient.

Balbi B, Ferrarotti I, Miravitlles M (2016) Efficacy of augmentation therapy for emphysema associated with α1-antitrypsin deficiency: enough is enough. Eur Respir J; 47(1):35-8. doi: 10.1183/13993003.01145-2015.

Balmes JR (2012) When smoke gets in your lungs. Proc Am Thorac Soc, 7, 2, 98–101
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3266023/?tool=pmcentrez
• in the developing world smoke due to inefficient cooking with biomass fuels in poorly ventilated homes is a major cause of COPD

Ban A, Ismail A, Harun R et al (2012) Impact of clinical pathway on clinical outcomes in the management of COPD exacerbation. BMC Pulm Med, 12, 27. doi: 10.1186/1471-2466-12-27
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3479064/

Barker AF (2010) Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency identification and management. COPD, 7, 3, 162-3
informahealthcare.com/doi/full/10.3109/15412555.2010.487042
• AATD takes an average 6 years to be diagnosed
• diagnosis and treatment of AATD

Barreiro E, Sieck G (2013) Muscle dysfunction in COPD. J Appl Phys; 114(9):1220-1221. doi: 10.1152/japplphysiol.00162.2013
• muscle dysfunction is a predictor of mortality and affects respiratory and limb muscles, including weak quadriceps in a third of patients with even mild disease

Barros de Sá R (2017) Immediate effects of respiratory muscle stretching on chest wall kinematics and electromyography in COPD patients. Resp Physiol Neurobiol; 241:1-7

Bastin AJ, Starling L, Ahmed R (2010) High prevalence of undiagnosed and severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease at first hospital admission with acute exacerbation. Chronic Resp Dis, 7, 2, 91-97
• fewer than one in five patients are diagnosed
• diagnosis was not made prior to admission in one-third of patients with severe disease
• self management plans are associated with reduced admissions
• one third of patients were not seen by the respiratory team during their admission
• PR is safe after exacerbations
• stopping smoking reduces mortality even in patients with severe COPD

Baz M, Haji GS, Menzies-Gow A et al (2015) Dynamic laryngeal narrowing during exercise: a mechanism for generating intrinsic PEEP in COPD? Thorax; 70(3):251-7. doi: 10.1136/thoraxjnl-2014-205940

Berton DC, Castro MA, Merola P et al (2016) Inspiratory loading and limb blood flow in copd: the modulating effects of resting lung hyperinflation. Respir Physiol Neurobiol. Mar 7. pii: S1569-9048(16)30021-0. doi: 10.1016/j.resp.2016.03.004

Beekman E, Mesters I, Hendriks EJ et al (2014) Exacerbations in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease receiving physical therapy: a cohort-nested randomised controlled trial. BMC Pulm Med; 14:71. doi: 10.1186/1471-2466-14-71
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4108017/

Behnke M (2000) Home-based exercise is capable of preserving hospital-based improvements in severe COPD. Respir Med, 94, 1184-91
www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6WWS-45BCP2H-7&_user=10&_coverDate=12%2F31%2F2000&_alid=481324586&_rdoc=1&_fmt=summary&_orig=search&_cdi=7138&_sort=d&_docanchor=&view=c&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=30ebd5e7567ad2198ddbd394d2a82b99

Bekkering GE (2000) Guidelines for physiotherapeutic management in COPD. Phys Ther Rev, 5, 59-74
• comprehensive, physiologically-sound guidelines, including flow-charts

Bellamy D Freeman D (2000) Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Prim Care Respir J, 9, S20-21
• steroids are usually beneficial for exacerbations but unhelpful in the stable state

Bellone A (2002) Short-term effects of expiration under positive pressure in patients with acute COPD and mild acidosis requiring NIV. Int Care Med, 28, 581-5
• expiration under positive pressure helps clear secretions in this group of patients

Berry JK (2001) Malnutrition in COPD: adding insult to injury. AACN Clin Issues, 12, 210-19
www.aacn.org/AACN/jrnlci.nsf/bd5ca01ff707c8948825653f000cd2b6/bd63ceac884291fa88256a5c005f34a5?OpenDocument
• mechanisms and management

Bégin P (2000) Chronic hypoventilation helps to maintain the inspiratory muscle effort of COPD patients. Chest, 117, 271S-273S
www.chestjournal.org/cgi/content/full/117/5_suppl_1/271S?maxtoshow=&HITS=10&hits=10&RESULTFORMAT=&andorexactfulltext=and&searchid=1&FIRSTINDEX=0&sortspec=relevance&volume=117&firstpage=271S&resourcetype=HWCIT
• the purpose of chronic hypoventilation (common in Type 2 respiratory failure) may be to preserve the respiratory muscles

Bhatt SP, Wells JM, Kinney GL et al (2016) β-Blockers are associated with a reduction in COPD exacerbations. Thorax; 71(1):8-14. doi: 10.1136/thoraxjnl-2015-207251

Bhatt SP (2013) Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation in subjects with stable COPD: a randomized trial. Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis, 8: 581-589
• noninvasive ventilation at home may improve gas exchange and quality of life

Bhatt SP, Terry NL, Nath H et al (2016) Association between expiratory central airway collapse and respiratory outcomes among smokers. JAMA; 315(5):498-505. doi: 10.1001/jama.2015.19431

Bhatt SP, Wells JM, Kinney JL et al (2016) β-Blockers are associated with a reduction in COPD exacerbations. Thorax; 71(1):8-14. doi:10.1136/thoraxjnl-2015-207251

Burtin C, Riet G, Puhan MA et al (2016) Handgrip weakness and mortality risk in COPD: a multicentre analysis. Thorax; 71(1):86-87. doi:10.1136/thoraxjnl-2015-207451
• handgrip strength is associated with mortality

Biskobing DM (2002) COPD and osteoporosis. Chest, 121, 609-620
www.chestjournal.org/cgi/content/full/121/2/609?maxtoshow=&HITS=10&hits=10&RESULTFORMAT=&andorexactfulltext=and&searchid=1&FIRSTINDEX=0&sortspec=relevance&volume=121&firstpage=609&resourcetype=HWCIT
• many patients are not diagnosed as having osteoporosis until they get a fracture

Bon JM (2010) Plasma inflammatory mediators associated with bone metabolism in COPD. COPD, 7, 3, 186-191
informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.3109/15412555.2010.482114
• osteoporosis is a significant problem in COPD

Bonilha AG et al (2009) Effects of singing classes on pulmonary function and quality of life of COPD patients. Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis, 4, 1–8
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2672787/?tool=pmcentrez

Bourbeau J, Sedeno MF, Metz K et al (2016) Early COPD exacerbation treatment with combination of ICS and LABA for patients presenting with mild-to-moderate worsening of dyspnea. COPD; 13(4):439-47. doi: 10.3109/15412555.2015.1101435

Brijker F, Heijdra YF, Van den Elshout et al (2002) Discontinuation of furosemide decreases PaCO2 in patients with COPD. Chest, 121, 377-82
• furosemide can cause metabolic acidosis.

Brown JP, Martinez CH (2016) Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease comorbidities. Curr Opin Pulm Med; 22(2):113-8. doi: 10.1097/MCP.0000000000000241

BTS (2007) Intermediate care - hospital-at-home in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: British Thoracic Society guideline. Thorax, 62, 200-10

Bucknall CE, Miller G, Lloyd SM et al (2012) Glasgow supported self-management trial (GSuST) for patients with moderate to severe COPD: randomised controlled trial. BMJ, 344, e1060. doi: 10.1136/bmj.e1060
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3295724/?tool=pmcentrez

Burge AT, Lee AL, Kein C et al (2017) Prevalence and impact of urinary incontinence in men with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a questionnaire survey. Physiotherapy; 103(1):53–58. doi: dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.physio.2015.11.004

Burtin C, Ter Riet G, Puhan MA et al (2016) Handgrip weakness and mortality risk in COPD: a multicentre analysis. Thorax; 71(1):86-7. doi: 10.1136/thoraxjnl-2015-207451
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26514408

Cahalin LP (2002) Efficacy of diaphragmatic breathing in persons with COPD: a review of the literature. J Cardiopulm.Rehab, 22, 7-21
www.nursingcenter.com
• rationale of why diaphragmatic breathing may or may not be effective

Carter R, Holiday DB (2003) Predicting oxygen uptake for men and women with moderate to severe COPD. Arch Phys Med Rehab, 84, 1158-64
www.archives-pmr.org/article/PIIS0003999303000479/abstract
• estimation of VO2 from six-minute walk test

Casas A, Troosters T, Garcia-Aymerich J, et al (2006) Integrated care prevents hospitalisations for exacerbations in COPD patients. Eur Respir J, 28,123–130
erj.ersjournals.com/cgi/content/abstract/28/1/123?ijkey=e56a48572f85c2f741c22831f90c261296c53e60&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha
• individually tailored care plan on discharge, shared with primary care team and specialist nurse via a web-based call centre, reduces hospitalisation

Chatwin M, Hawkins G, Panicchia L et al (2016) Randomised crossover trial of telemonitoring in chronic respiratory patients. Thorax; 71(4):305-311. doi: 10.1136/thoraxjnl-2015-207045
• telemonitoring has not yet proved cost-effective
thorax.bmj.com/content/71/4/305.full

Chen S, Li Y, Zheng Z, Luo Q et al (2016b) The analysis of components that lead to increased work of breathing in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. J Thoracic Dis; 8(8):2212-2218. doi: 10.21037/jtd.2016.08.01.
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4999666/
• airflow resistance is the main contributor to SOB at rest, and hyperinflation the main contributor on exercise

Cherniack NS (2002) Singing the COPD blues. Respiration, 69, 115-16
content.karger.com/ProdukteDB/produkte.asp?Aktion=ShowAbstract&ProduktNr=224278&Ausgabe=228221&ArtikelNr=56312
• a short sweet reminder of the mechanism of long term oxygen to prevent organ damage

Chaplin EJL (2013) Neuromuscular stimulation of quadriceps in patients hospitalised during an exacerbation of COPD: a comparison of low (35 Hz) and high (50 Hz) frequencies. Physiother Res Internat, 18(3):148–156. doi: 10.1002/pri.1541.

Chilosi M, Poletti V, Rossi A et al (2012) The pathogenesis of COPD and IPF: Distinct horns of the same devil? Respir Res, 13, 1, 3
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3282644/?tool=pmcentrez

Chow JW, Khullar K, Katechia K et al (2016) Controlled oxygen therapy at emergency department presentation increases the likelihood of achieving target oxygen saturations in patients with exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Emerg Med Austr; 28(1):44-7. doi: 10.1111/1742-6723.12528
onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1742-6723.12528/full
• in acute COPD patients, only 16% achieved their target SpO2

Chung LP, Lake F, Hyde E et al (2016) Integrated multidisciplinary community service for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease reduces hospitalisations. Intern Med J; 46(4):427-34. doi: 10.1111/imj.12984
• multidisciplinary community programme reduces respiratory admissions, more so in patients who have completed pulmonary rehabilitation

Constantin D, Menon MK, Houchen-Wolloff L et al (2013) Skeletal muscle molecular responses to resistance training and dietary supplementation in COPD. Thorax; 68(7):625-33

Cooke CE (2012) Review: Clinical inertia in the management of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. COPD, 9, 1, 73–80
• COPD is the third biggest killer in the US

Cooper CB, Calligaro GL, Quinn MM et al (2014) Determinants of dynamic hyperinflation during metronome-paced tachypnea in COPD and normal subjects. Resp Physiol Neurobiol; 190(1):76-80

Contou D, Fragnoli C, Córdoba-Izquierdo A et al (2014) Noninvasive ventilation for acute hypercapnic respiratory
failure: intubation rate in an experienced unit. Respir Care; 59(1):2045–2052

Coronell C (2004) Relevance of assessing quadriceps endurance in patients with COPD. Eur Respir J, 24,129-136
erj.ersjournals.com/cgi/content/full/24/1/129?maxtoshow=&HITS=10&hits=10&RESULTFORMAT=&fulltext=Resistance+versus+endurance+training+in+patients+with+COPD+and+peripheral+muscle&andorexactfulltext=and&searchid=1&FIRSTINDEX=0&sortspec=relevance&resourcetype=HWCIT
• impaired quadriceps endurance is present in COPD patients even if they have mild airflow obstruction, indicating that other factors as well as deconditioning are responsible

Couillard A, Muir JF, Veale D (2010) COPD recent findings: impact on clinical practice. COPD, 7, 3, 204-213
informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.3109/15412555.2010.482115
• co-morbidities - muscle dysfunction, nutritional and endocrine dysfunction, anaemia, osteoporosis, and cardiovascular and metabolic disorders

Cross J (2012) Chest physiotherapy during an acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Chronic Resp Dis, 9, 2, 73-75

Dag E, Bulcun E, Turkel Y et al (2016) Factors influencing cognitive function in subjects with COPD. Respir Care; 61(8):1044-1050
• cerebral hypoxia secondary to hypoxaemia contributes to cognitive impairment, which is thought to progress to dementia in over half of patients within 3-5 yrs

Dagan N (2017) External validation and comparison of three prediction tools for risk of osteoporotic fractures using data from population based electronic health records: retrospective cohort study. BMJ; 356:i6755. doi: https://doi-org.csplis.idm.oclc.org/10.1136/bmj.i6755

Dahlén I, Janson C (2002) Anxiety and depression are related to the outcome of emergency treatment in patients with obstructive pulmonary disease. Chest, 122, 1633-7
www.chestjournal.org/cgi/content/full/122/5/1633?maxtoshow=&HITS=10&hits=10&RESULTFORMAT=&andorexactfulltext=and&searchid=1&FIRSTINDEX=0&sortspec=relevance&volume=122&firstpage=1633&resourcetype=HWCIT
• significant association between treatment failure and anxiety and/or depression

Dal Negro RW, Celli BR (2016) The BODECOST Index (BCI): a composite index for assessing the impact of COPD in real life. Multidiscip Respir Med; 11:10. doi: 10.1186/s40248-016-0045-4.

De Araujo CL et al (2016) Pursed-lips breathing reduces dynamic hyperinflation induced by activities of daily living test in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. J Rehabil Med; 47(10):957-62.
• pursed-lips breathing may reduce dynamic hyperinflation, but do not improve functional capacity:

Decramer M, Janssens W, Miravitlles M (2012) Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Lancet, 379, 9823

Decramer ML, Hanania NA, Lötvall JO (2013) The safety of long-acting β2-agonists in the treatment of stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis, 8, 53–64. doi:10.2147/COPD.S39018

De Godoy DV (2003) A randomized controlled trial of the effect of psychotherapy on anxiety and depression in COPD. Arch Phys Med Rehab, 84, 1154-7
www.archives-pmr.org/article/PIIS0003999303002399/abstract

Dekhuijzen PN (2006) Acetylcysteine in the treatment of severe COPD. Dekhuijzen Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd, 150, 22, 1222-6.
• mucolytics can reduce exacerbations

De Miguel-Díez J (2010) The influence of heart disease on characteristics, quality of life, use of health resources, and costs of COPD in primary care settings. BMC Cardiovasc Dis, 10, 8
www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2261/10/8
• patients with heart disease as a comorbidity show worse quality of life and increased consumption of drugs

Derdak S (2017) Prevention of COPD readmissions: a work in progress. Respir Care; 62(1):133-134

de Souza GF (2010) Lactic acid levels in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease accomplishing unsupported arm exercises. Chronic Resp Dis, 7, 2, 75-82
• extra energy, equivalent to 50% of the peak required for maximal leg exercises, is needed for unsupported arm exercises to compensate for dyssynchronous contraction of the different ventilatory muscle compartments

Díaz AA et al (2013) CT and physiologic determinants of dyspnea and exercise capacity during the six-minute walk test in mild COPD. Respir Med, 107, 4, 570-579

DiBonaventura MD (2012) The impact of COPD on quality of life, productivity loss, and resource use among the elderly United States workforce. COPD, 9, 1, 46-57

Dodd JW, Marns PL, Clark AL et al (2012) The COPD Assessment Test (CAT): short- and medium-term response to pulmonary rehabilitation. COPD, 9, 4, 390–394
informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.3109/15412555.2012.671869

Dolmage TE, Janaudis-Ferreira T, Hill K et al (2013) Arm elevation and coordinated breathing strategies in patients with COPD. Chest; 144(1):128-35. doi: 10.1378/chest.12-2467.
• exhalation should be co-ordinated with arm elevation

Donesky-Cuenco D, Nguyen HQ, Paul S, Carrieri-Kohlman V (2009) Yoga therapy decreases dyspnea-related distress and improves functional performance in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a pilot study. J Altern Complement Med, 15, 3, 225-34 www.liebertonline.com/doi/abs/10.1089/acm.2008.0389

Dowson CA, Kuijer RG, Town IG (2010) Impact of panic disorder upon self-management educational goals in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease? Chronic Respir Dis, 7, 2, 83-90
• 24%–50% of hospitalized patients with COPD have panic disorder, compared to 10%–19% in general medical inpatients

Dritsaki M, Johnson-Warrington, K, Mitchell K et al (2016) An economic evaluation of a self-management programme of activity, coping and education for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Chron Respir Dis; 13(1):48-56. doi: 10.1177/1479972315619578
• a self-management programme is cost-effective

Du Q, Jin J, Liu X, Sun Y (2016) Bronchiectasis as a comorbidity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One; 11(3):e0150532. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0150532

Echevarria C, Brewin K, Horobin H et al (2016) Early supported discharge/hospital at home for acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a review and meta-analysis. COPD; 13(4):523-33. doi: 10.3109/15412555.2015.1067885

Echevarria C, Steer J, Heslop-Marshall K et al (2016) Validation of the DECAF score to predict hospital mortality in acute exacerbations of COPD. Thorax; 71(2):133-140. doi: 10.1136/thoraxjnl-2015-207775
thorax.bmj.com/content/71/2/133.full

Effing TW, Vercoulen JH, Bourbeau J et al (2016) Definition of a COPD self-management intervention: International Expert Group consensus. Eur Respir J; 48(1):46-54. doi: 10.1183/13993003.00025-2016

Ekici A, Bulcun E, Karakoc T et al (2015) Factors associated with quality of life in subjects with stable COPD. Respir Care; 60(11):1585-1591

Emtner M, Wadell K (2016) Effects of exercise training in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease-a narrative review for FYSS. Br J Sports Med; 50(6):368-71. doi: 10.1136/bjsports-2015-095872

Engel R, Vemulpad S (2011) The role of spinal manipulation, soft-tissue therapy, and exercise in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a review of the literature and proposal of an anatomical explanation. J Altern Complement Med; 17(9):797-801. doi: 10.1089/acm.2010.0517

Farkhooy A (2013) Impaired Carbon Monoxide Diffusing Capacity is the strongest predictor of exercise intolerance in COPD. COPD, 10(2):180–185. doi:10.3109/15412555.2012.734873

Farquhar M (2010) Diversity of experience and impacts of caring for a patient with breathlessness in advanced COPD. Palliat Med, 24, 2, 211

Fernandes M, Cukier A, Feltrim MIZ (2011) Efficacy of diaphragmatic breathing in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Chron Respir Dis, 8, 237-44
crd.sagepub.com/content/8/4/237.abstract?etoc
• diaphragmatic breathing reduces SOB and hypoxaemia in the majority of COPD patients, but in some patients with severe COPD it may cause asynchronous breathing thus worsening SOB

Ferreira TC, Sampaio EP, Argañaraz GA et al (2014) Increased prevalence of the alpha-1-antitrypsin (A1AT) deficiency-related S gene in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1. J Med Virol; 86(1):23-9. doi: 10.1002/jmv.23759

Figueiredo D, Gabriel R, Jácome C (2014) Caring for people with early and advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: how do family carers cope? J Clin Nurs; 23(1-2):211–20)

Frisk B, Espehaug B, Hardie JA et al (2014) Physical activity and longitudinal change in 6-min walk distance in COPD patients. Respir Med; 108(1):86-94

Frølich A (2012) Impact of exercise capacity on dyspnea and health-related quality of life in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. J Cardiopulm Rehab Prev, 32, 2, 92-100

Gagliardi E (2014) Thoraco-abdominal motion/displacement does not affect dyspnea following exercise training in COPD patients. Resp Physiol Neurobiol; 190(1):124-130

Garvey C (2016) Recent updates in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
Postgrad Med; 128(2):231-8. doi: 10.1080/00325481.2016.1118352

Gauvain C, Mornex J-F, Pison C et al (2015) Health-related quality of life in patients with alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency: the French experience. COPD; 12, S1: 46-51. doi:10.3109/15412555.2015.1022645
• breathlessness has the greatest impact on quality of life in patients with alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency

Gea J, Pascual S, Casadevall C et al (2016) Muscle dysfunction in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: update on causes and biological findings. J Thoracic Dis; 7(10):E418-E438. doi: 10.3978/j.issn.2072-1439.2015.08.04.

Greulich T (2017) The prevalence of diagnosed α1-antitrypsin deficiency and its comorbidities: results from a large population-based database. Eur Respir J; 49(1): 1600154. doi: 10.1183/13993003.00154-2016
• comorbidities of α1-antitrypsin deficiency include hypertension, kidney disease and diabetes

Gosselink R (2004) Breathing techniques in patients with COPD. Chronic Respir Dis, 1, 163-72
crd.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/1/3/163

Guarnieri G (2010) Effects of inhalation of thermal water on exhaled breath condensate in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Respiration, 79, 216-221

Guffey JS, Motts S, Barymon D et al (2016) Using near infrared light to manage symptoms associated with restless legs syndrome. Physiother Theory Pract; 32(1):34-44. doi:10.3109/09593985.2015.1087613

Guillien A, Puyraveau M, Soumagne T et al (2016) Prevalence and risk factors for COPD in farmers: a cross-sectional controlled study. Eur Respir J; 47(1):95-103. doi: 10.1183/13993003.00153-2015

Gulbas G, Kaplan Y, Kamisli O et al (2013) Neuromuscular transmission in hypoxemic patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Resp Physiol Neurobiol; 189(1):112-116

Hajizadeh N, Goldfeld K, Crothers K (2015) What happens to patients with COPD with long-term oxygen treatment who receive mechanical ventilation for COPD exacerbation? A 1-year retrospective follow-up study. Thorax;70:294-6. doi:10.1136/thoraxjnl-2014-205248
• patients die mainly from cardiovascular disease
• mechanical ventilation brings high mortality

Hansel NN, MC McCormack, Kim V et al (2016) The effects of air pollution and temperature on COPD. COPD; 13:3:372-379. doi: 10.3109/15412555.2015.1089846

Hartl S, Lopez-Campos JL, Pozo-Rodriguez F et al (2016) Risk of death and readmission of hospital-admitted COPD exacerbations: European COPD audit. Eur Respir J; 47(1):113-21. doi: 10.1183/13993003.01391-2014

Hatipoglu US (2016) Treating and preventing acute exacerbations of COPD. Cleve Clin J Med; 83(4):289-300. doi: 10.3949/ccjm.83a.14188

Hayes D, Black SM, Tobias JD et al (2016) Prevalence of pulmonary hypertension and its influence on survival in patients with advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease prior to lung transplantation. COPD, 13(1): 50-56. doi: 10.3109/15412555.2015.1043425

Heunks MA, Abdo WF (2012) Oxygen-induced hypercapnia in COPD:
myths and facts. Crit Care, 16, 323-6

Hitchings AW, Baker EH (2016) Avoiding unnecessary arterial blood sampling in COPD exacerbations: a stab in the right direction. Thorax; 71(3):208-209. doi: 10.1136/thoraxjnl-2015-208205

Holland AE, Button BM (2006) Is there a role for airway clearance techniques in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease? Chronic Respir Dis, 3, 2, 83-91
www.ingentaconnect.com/content/sage/crd/2006/00000003/00000002/art00005
• PEP and autogenic drainage thought to be effective, but it may be advisable to avoid techniques that involve forced expiration

Huang SW, Wang WT, Chou LC et al (2016) Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease increases the risk of hip fracture: a nationwide population-based cohort study. Sci Rep; 6:23360. doi: 10.1038/srep23360

Itoh M, Tsuji T, Nemoto K (2013) Undernutrition in patients with COPD and its treatment. Nutrients, 18, 5, 4, 1316-35. doi: 10.3390/nu5041316

Jacome C, Marques A (2015) Computerized respiratory sounds are a reliable marker in subjects with COPD. Respir Care; 60(9):1264-1275
• COPD shows inspiratory crackles and expiratory wheezes

Janssen DJA, Spruit MA, Does JD (2010) End-of-life care in a COPD patient awaiting lung transplantation. BMC Palliative Care, 9, 6
www.biomedcentral.com/content/pdf/1472-684X-9-6.pdf

Janssen DJ, Wouters EF, Parra YL et al (2016) Prevalence of thoracic pain in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and relationship with patient characteristics: a cross-sectional observational study. BMC Pulm Med; 16:47. doi: 10.1186/s12890-016-0210-8
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4823883/
• thoracic pain is reported in 21–77 % of patients
• positive relationship between pain and dyspnoea severity - physical deconditioning might be the explanation for the relationship between breathlessness and pain, or both symptoms could be the results of the same underlying process
• under treatment has been reported
• systematic assessment and treatment of thoracic pain should be standard

Javadzadeh S, Chowienczyk S, Booth S et al (2016) Comparison of respiratory health-related quality of life in patients with intractable breathlessness due to advanced cancer or advanced COPD. BMJ Support Palliat Care. 2016 Mar;6(1):105-8. doi: 10.1136/bmjspcare-2015-000949
• patients with breathlessness due to advanced COPD have worse respiratory HRQoL than those with advanced cancer
• greater access to palliative care is needed in advanced COPD

Jones GL (2016) Quality of life changes over time in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Curr Opin Pulm Med; 22(2):125-9. doi: 10.1097/MCP.0000000000000242
• symptoms and activity levels are as important as FEV1 in determining disease severity, QoL and prognosis
• small sustained increases in physical activity may slow physical deterioration and improve health-related QoL.

Jones AYM, Dean E, Chow CCS (2003) Comparison of the oxygen cost of breathing exercises with spontaneous breathing in patients with stable COPD. Phys Ther, 83, 424-31
www.ptjournal.org/cgi/content/full/83/5/424
• abdominal breathing and pursed lip breathing reduce oxygen cost of breathing, but this is not maintained

Jones SE, MaddocksM, Don SSC et al (2015) Sarcopenia in COPD: prevalence, clinical correlates and response to pulmonary rehabilitation. Thorax; 5(70):213-218. doi:10.1136/thoraxjnl-2014-206440
• sarcopaenia sometimes reversible by pulmonary rehabilitation

Jones GL (2016) Quality of life changes over time in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Curr Opin Pulm Med; 22(2):125-9. doi: 10.1097/MCP.0000000000000242
• symptoms and activity levels are as important as FEV1 in determining disease severity, QoL and prognosis
• small sustained increases in physical activity may slow physical deterioration and improve health-related QoL.

Jones RL, Noble PB, Elliot JG (2016) Airway remodelling in COPD: It's not asthma! Respirology ; 21(8):1347-1356. doi: 10.1111/resp.12841

Jorine E (2013) Physical and psychosocial factors associated with physical activity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Arch Phys Med Rehabil, 94(12):2396-402.e7

Kakizaki F et al (1999) Preliminary report on the effects of respiratory muscle stretch on chest wall mobility in COPD. Respir Care, 44, 409-414
www.rcjournal.com/contents/04.99/04.99.0409.asp

Katz P, Iribarren C, Sanchez G et al (2016) Obesity and functioning among individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. COPD; 13(3): 352-359. doi: 10.3109/15412555.2015.1087991

Knebel AR, Bentz E, Barnes P (2000) Dyspnea management in alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency. Nurs Res, 49, 333-8

Ko FW, Cheung NK, Rainer TH et al (2017) Comprehensive care programme for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a randomised controlled trial. Thorax; 72:122-8 doi:10.1136/thoraxjnl-2016-208396

Kvangarsnes M, Torheim H, Rotheim H et al 2013) Narratives of breathlessness in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. J Clin Nurs; 22(21-22):3062–3070. doi: 10.1111/jocn.12033

Lahousse L, Verhamme KM, Stricker BH et al (2016) Cardiac effects of current treatments of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Lancet Respir Med; 4(2):149-64. doi: 10.1016/S2213-2600(15)00518-4.

Littleton SW (2015) Hypercapnia from hyperoxia in COPD: another piece of the puzzle or another puzzle entirely? Respir Care; 60(3):473-475

Liu Y, Li H, Ding N, et al (2016) Functional status assessment of patients with COPD: a systematic review of performance-based measures and patient-reported measures. Yang. C, ed. Medicine; 95(20):e3672. doi:10.1097/MD.0000000000003672
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4902414/

López-Campos JL, Tan W, Soriano JB (2016) Global burden of COPD. Respirology; 21(1):14-23. doi: 10.1111/resp.12660.

López-Torres I, Valenza MC, Torres-Sánchez I et al (2016) Changes in cognitive status in COPD patients across clinical stages. COPD; 13(3):327-332. doi: 10.3109/15412555.2015.1081883

Li MC, Yang G, Zhou XD et al (2014) The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying mucus hypersecretion induced by cold temperatures in cigarette smoke-exposed rats. Int J Mol Med; 33(1):83-90. doi: 10.3892/ijmm.2013.1535
• patients are extra sensitive to cold air

Littleton SW (2015) Hypercapnia from hyperoxia in COPD: another piece of the puzzle or another puzzle entirely? Respir Care; 60(3):473-475

Livermore N (2010) Prevention of panic attacks and panic disorder in COPD. Europ Resp J, 35, 557-563

Lord VM, Cave P, Hume VJ et al (2010) Singing teaching as a therapy for chronic respiratory disease - a randomised controlled trial and qualitative evaluation. BMC Pulm Med, 10:41.
• control of breathing and posture that accompany singing lead to improved quality of life and reduced anxiety

Lun CT, Tsui MS, Cheng SL et al (2016) Differences in baseline factors and survival between normocapnia, compensated respiratory acidosis and decompensated respiratory acidosis in COPD exacerbation: a pilot study. Respirology; 21(1):128-36. doi: 10.1111/resp.12652
onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/resp.12652/pdf

Maddocks M, Nolan CM, Man WD (2016) Neuromuscular electrical stimulation to improve exercise capacity in patients with severe COPD: a randomised double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet Respir Med; 4(1):27-36. doi: 10.1016/S2213-2600(15)00503-2.
• neuromuscular electrical stimulation improves functional exercise capacity in severe COPD by enhancing quadriceps muscle mass

Malaguti C (2009) Reliability of chest wall mobility and its correlation with pulmonary function in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Respir Care, 54, 12, 1703-11

Man WD-C (2016) Aspects of skeletal muscles in chronic respiratory disease. Chron Respir Dis; 13(3):295-6. doi: 10.1177/1479972316653541

Martín-Salvador A, Colodro-Amores G, Torres-Sánchez I et al (2016) Physical therapy intervention during hospitalization in patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and pneumonia: A randomized clinical trial. Med Clin (Barc); 146(7):301-4. doi: 10.1016/j.medcli.2015.11.009
• during exacerbation, an early exercise programme more than compensates for the immobility of hospitalisation

Matera MG, Calzetta L, Cazzola M et al (2013) β-adrenoceptor modulation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: present and future perspectives. Drugs; 73(15):1653-1663

Matera MG, Calzetta L, Cazzola M (2016) Oxidation pathway and exacerbations in COPD: the role of NAC. Expert Rev Respir Med; 10(1):89-97. doi: 10.1586/17476348.2016.1121105

McDonald VM (2013) Multidimensional assessment and tailored interventions for COPD: respiratory utopia or common sense? Thorax; 68(7):691-4

McKeever TM, Hearson G, Housley G et al (2016) Using venous blood gas analysis in the assessment of COPD exacerbations: a prospective cohort study. Thorax; 71(3):210-215. doi: 10.1136/thoraxjnl-2015-207573
thorax.bmj.com/content/71/3/210.full
• arterial sampling is more painful than venous sampling.
• there is good agreement between pH and HCO3- values derived from venous and arterial blood

McKeough ZJ, Alison JA (2003) Arm positioning alters lung volumes in subjects with COPD and healthy subjects. Austr J Physiother, 49, 133-7
www.physiotherapy.asn.au/AJP/vol_49/2/AustJPhysiotherv49i2McKeough.pdf

McNamara RJ, McKeough ZJ, McKenzie DK, Alison JA (2015) Acceptability of the aquatic environment for exercise training by people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with physical comorbidities: Physiotherapy; 101(2):187-192. doi:10.1016/j.physio.2014.09.002

McNicholas WT (2016) Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and obstructive sleep apnoea-the overlap syndrome. J Thorac Dis; 8(2):236-42. doi: 10.3978/j.issn.2072-1439.2016.01.52

Melani AS, Paleari D (2016) Maintaining control of chronic obstructive airway disease: adherence to inhaled therapy and risks and benefits of switching devices. COPD, 13(2): 241-250. doi: 10.3109/15412555.2015.1045972
• choosing a device to suit the patient is as important as the drug itself

Mikelsons C (2007) The role of physiotherapy in the management of COPD. Respir Med, 4, 1, 2-7

Minet C (2012) Reduced six-minute walking distance, high fat-free-mass index and hypercapnia are associated with endothelial dysfunction in COPD. Resp Physiol Neurobiol, 182, 2, 128–134

Miravitlles M (2010) Prevention of exacerbations of COPD with pharmacotherapy. Eur Respir Rev, 19, 116, 119–126
err.ersjournals.com/cgi/content/full/19/116/119
• exacerbations may be reduced by long-acting bronchodilators (alone or combined with inhaled corticosteroids), rehabilitation and self-management plans

Miravitlles M, Kruesmann F, Haverstock D et al (2012) Sputum colour and bacteria in chronic bronchitis exacerbations: a pooled analysis. Eur Respir J; 39(6):1354-1360. doi:10.1183/09031936.00042111

Mitchell PD, Das JP, Murphy DJ et al (2015) Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis with emphysema: evidence of synergy among emphysema and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in smokers. Respir Care; 60(2):259-26

Mohammed J, Meeus M, Derom E et al (2015) evidence for autonomic function and its influencing factors in subjects with COPD: a systematic review. Respir Care; 60(12):1841-1851

Mokhlesi B (2002) Oropharyngeal deglutition in stable COPD. Chest, 121, 361-369
www.chestjournal.org/cgi/content/full/121/2/361?maxtoshow=&HITS=10&hits=10&RESULTFORMAT=&author1=Mokhlesi+B+&fulltext=Oropharyngeal+deglutition+in+stable+COPD&andorexactfulltext=and&searchid=1&FIRSTINDEX=0&sortspec=relevance&volume=121&resourcetype=HWCIT

Montesa AM (2017) Abdominal muscle activity during breathing in different postures in COPD “Stage 0” and healthy subjects. Resp Physiol Neurobiol; 238:14–22

Mueller C, Flotte TR (2013) Gene-based therapy for Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency. COPD, 10(S1):44-49. doi:10.3109/15412555.2013.764978

Mulhall P (2016) Non-pharmacological treatments for COPD. Respirology; 21:791–809. doi: 10.1111/resp.12782.
onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/resp.12782/full

Myrrha MAC, Vieira DSR, Moraes KS et al (2013) Chest wall volumes during inspiratory loaded breathing in COPD patients. Resp Physiol Neurobiol; 188(1):15-20

Neder JA (2002) Home based neuromuscular electrical stimulation as a new rehabilitative strategy for severely disabled patients with COPD. Thorax, 57, 333-7
thorax.bmjjournals.com/cgi/content/full/57/4/333?maxtoshow=&HITS=10&hits=10&RESULTFORMAT=&andorexactfulltext=and&searchid=1&FIRSTINDEX=0&sortspec=relevance&volume=57&firstpage=333&resourcetype=HWCIT
• electrical stimulation of leg muscles in patients with COPD improves exercise tolerance and breathlessness

Ng LWC, Mackney J, Jenkins S (2012) Does exercise training change physical activity in people with COPD? A systematic review and meta-analysis. Chronic Resp Dis, 9, 1, 17-26

Nishimura K (2002) Dyspnea is a better predictor of 5-year survival than airway obstruction in patients with COPD. Chest, 121, 5, 1434-1440. doi:10.1378/chest.121.5.1434

Oba Y, Sarva ST, Dias S (2016) Efficacy and safety of long-acting β-agonist/long-acting muscarinic antagonist combinations in COPD: a network meta-analysis. Thorax; 71(1):15-25. doi:10.1136/thoraxjnl-2014-206732
• combination therapy is effective in improving lung function, quality of life, symptom scores and moderate-to-severe exacerbation rates

O’Donohue WJ (2000) Hypoxemia during sleep in patients with COPD. Respir Care, 45, 188-91
• evidence for severe nocturnal desaturations in COPD patients

O’Donnell AE (2011) Bronchiectasis in patients with COPD: a distinct COPD phenotype? Chest, 140, 5 1107-1108

Oga T (2003) Analysis of the factors related to mortality in COPD: role of exercise capacity and health status. Am J Resp Crit Care Med, 167, 544-9
• exercise capacity and health status show greater relevance than RFT’s in evaluation of disease severity

Ogino T, Mase K, Masafumi N et al (2015) Effects of arm bracing on expiratory flow limitation and lung volume in elderly COPD subjects. Respir Care; 60(9):1282-1287

OHTAC (Ontario Health Technology Advisory Committee) (2012) Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Evidentiary Framework. Ont Health Technol Assess Ser, 12, 2, 1–97
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/pmc3384372/

Oliveira MF, Alencar MC, Arbex F et al (2016) Effects of heart failure on cerebral blood flow in COPD: rest and exercise. Respir Physiol Neurobiol; 221:41-8. doi: 10.1016/j.resp.2015.10.005

Oliveira MF, Rodrigues MK, Treptow E et al (2012) Effects of oxygen supplementation on cerebral oxygenation during exercise in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients not entitled to long-term oxygen therapy. Clin Physiol Functional Imag, 32, 1, 52-8
• ambulatory oxygen improves cerebral oxygenation

Oliveira CC, Lee A, Granger CL et al (2013) Postural control and fear of falling assessment in people with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: a systematic review of instruments, International Classification of Functioning, Disability and health linkage, and measurement properties. Arch Phys Med Rehabil, 94(9):1784-1799.e7

Oliveira MF, Alencar MC, Arbex F et al (2016) Effects of heart failure on cerebral blood flow in COPD: Rest and exercise. Resp Physiol Neurobiol; 221:41-48

Osadnik CR, McDonald CF, Holland AE (2014) Clinical issues of mucus accumulation in COPD. Internat J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis; 9:301-302

Oshaug K (2013) Should chest examination be reinstated in the early diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease? Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis, 8:369–377

Ospina MB, Mrklas K, Deuchar L et al (2017) A systematic review of the effectiveness of discharge care bundles for patients with COPD. Thorax; 72(1):31-39. doi: 10.1136/thoraxjnl-2016-208820
thorax.bmj.com/content/72/1/31.full
• discharge bundles reduce readmissions

Osthoff AR (2013) Association between peripheral muscle strength and daily physical activity in patients with COPD: a systematic literature review and meta-analysis J Cardiopulm Rehab Prev; 33(6):351-9

Paone G, Leone V, Conti V et al (2016) Blood and sputum biomarkers in COPD and asthma: a review. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci; 20(4):698-708

Papandrinopoulou D (2012) Lung compliance and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Pulm Med: 542769. doi: 10.1155/2012/542769
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3486437/

Poon CS, Tin C, Song G (2015) Submissive hypercapnia: Why COPD patients are more prone to CO2 retention than heart failure patients. Respir Physiol Neurobiol; 216:86-93. doi: 10.1016/j.resp.2015.03.001
• a really neat explanation of why some patients develop hypercapnia

Prasanna SJ (2011) Causal relationship between periodontitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. J Indian Soc Periodontol, 15, 4, 359–65
• periodontitis overlaps with COPD, either as a cause of lung infection or caused itself by osteoporosis

Price D et al (2013) Impact of night-time symptoms in COPD: a real-world study in five European countries. Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis, 8: 595-603
• sleep disturbance occurs in 78% of patients

Putcha N, Barr RG, Han MK et al (2016) Understanding the impact of second-hand smoke exposure on clinical outcomes in participants with COPD in the SPIROMICS cohort. Thorax; 71(5): 411-420

Raghavan D, Bartter T, Joshi M (2016) How to reduce hospital readmissions in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease? Curr Opin Pulm Med; 22(2):106-12. doi: 10.1097/MCP.0000000000000245

Rea H, McAuley S, Donnell O (2004) Home based humidification therapy for patients with COPD and bronchiectasis. Eur Respir J, 24: Suppl. 48, 31s
www.ersnet.org/ers/lr/browse/media.aspx?id_dossier=14546&id_fiche=117613
• people at home with COPD or bronchiectasis have found humidification helpful

Reinke LF, Uman J, Udris EM et al (2013) Preferences for death and dying among veterans with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am J Hospice Palliat Med; 30(8):768-772. doi:10.1177/1049909112471579

Remels AHV et al (2013) The mechanisms of cachexia underlying muscle dysfunction in COPD. J Appl Phys; 114(9):1253-1262. doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.00790.2012

Remoortel HV, Hornikx M, Langer D et al (2014) Risk factors and comorbidities in the preclinical stages of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am J Respir Crit Care Med; 189(1):30-8. doi: 10.1164/rccm.201307-1240OC.
• physical inactivity and smoking are more strongly associated with comorbidities than airflow obstruction

Rennard SI (2005) Clinical approach to patients with COPD and cardiovascular disease. Proceedings Am Thoracic Soc, 2, 94-100
pats.atsjournals.org/cgi/content/full/2/1/94
• cardiac events are the major cause of death for patients with COPD
• monitoring of lung function in cardiac patients should be routine

Restrepo RD (2015) Year in review 2014: COPD. Respir Care; 60(7):1057-1060

Ribeiro F, Thériault M-E, Debigaré R et al (2013) Should all patients with COPD be exercise trained?
J Appl Phys; 114(9):1300-1308. doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.01124.2012

Rizzi M, Airoldi A, Cristiano A et al (2016) Oxygen therapy in COPD patients with isolated nocturnal hypoxemia; comparison of quality of life and sleep between bronchitis and emphysema phenotype: a prospective observational study. Europ J Internal Med; 34: 78–84
dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejim.2016.08.035
• people with emphysema who demonstrate nocturnal desaturation show improved cognition and QoL with nocturnal oxygen therapy

Roberts SE, Stern M Schreuder FM, Watson T (2009) The use of pursed lips breathing in stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a systematic review of the evidence. Phys Ther Reviews, 14, 4, 240-6
www.ingentaconnect.com/content/maney/ptr/2009/00000014/00000004/art00004
• patients with moderate to severe COPD are most likely to benefit.

Robertson N (2010) Running up that hill: How pulmonary rehabilitation can be enhanced by understanding patient perceptions of their condition. Chronic Resp Dis, 7, 4, 203-205
crd.sagepub.com/content/7/4/203.extract
• anxiety and depression occur in 50% of patients, 2-3 times that of the general population, which leads to poorer outcomes

Rocha T, Souza H, Brandão DC et al (2015) The Manual Diaphragm Release Technique improves diaphragmatic mobility, inspiratory capacity and exercise capacity in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a randomised trial. J Physiother; 61: 182–189
www.journalofphysiotherapy.com/article/S1836-9553%2815%2900100-9/fulltext

Rocker GM, Sinuff T, Horton R (2007) Advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: innovative approaches to palliation. J Palliat Med, 10, 3, 783-97

Rogers DF (2005) The role of airway secretions in COPD: pathophysiology, epidemiology and pharmacotherapeutic options. COPD, 2, 3, 341-353
• different mucus hypersecretory phenotypes in COPD

Sanders KJ, Kneppers AE, van de Bool C et al (2016) Cachexia in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: new insights and therapeutic perspective. J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle; 7(1):5-22. doi: 10.1002/jcsm.12062
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4799856/

Sanel S, Sezgin G, Sarıman N et al (2016) Bilateral non-traumatic hip fractures in a heavy smoker COPD patient on inhaled steroids. Arch Osteoporos; 11:8. doi: 10.1007/s11657-016-0259-2.

Sant'Anna T, Donária L, Furlanetto KC, et al (2017) Development, validity and reliability of the Londrina activities of daily living protocol for subjects with COPD. Respir Care; 62(3): 288-297.

Suau SJ, DeBlieux MC (2016) Management of acute exacerbation of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in the emergency department. Emerg Med Clinics; 34(1):15–37

Scharf SM, Maimon N, Simon-Tuval T (2010) Sleep quality predicts quality of life in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis. 22;6:1-12.

Schlecht NF, Schwartzman K, Bourbeau J (2005) Dyspnea as clinical indicator in patients with COPD. Chron Respir Dis, 2, 183-91
crd.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/2/4/183
• dyspnea is a better indicator of disease impact among COPD patients than spirometry

Schoos M et al (2013) Echocardiographic predictors of exercise capacity and mortality in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. BMC Cardiovasc Dis; 13:84
• heart-lung cross talk.

Sciriha A, Moore K, Montefort S (2009) Combining inspiratory muscle training and upper limb exercises. Does it improve outcomes in COPD patients? ACPRC Journal, 41, 22-28
• IMT reduces SOB and increases exercise tolerance
• IMT with arm exercises increases this improvement

Schou L (2012) Cognitive dysfunction in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease – A systematic review. Respir Med, 106, 8, 1071-1081

Silver PC, Kollef MH, Clinkscale D et al (2017) A respiratory therapist disease management program for subjects hospitalized with COPD. Respir Care; 62(1):1-9

Simpson SQ (2002) Oxygen-induced acute hypercapnia in COPD: what’s the problem? Crit Care Med, 30, 258-9
• there is no correlation of hypercapnia with ventilatory drive

Simpson C (2012) Advance care planning in COPD: Care versus “code status”. Chronic Respir Dis, 9, 3,193-204. doi:10.1177/1479972312445897

Singh S, Loke YK (2008) Inhaled anticholinergics and risk of major adverse cardiovascular events in patients with COPD; a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA, 300, 12, 1439-50
• inhaled anticholinergics are associated with increased risk of MI or stroke in COPD

Slok AHM, Bemelmans TCH, Kotz D et al (2016) The assessment of burden of COPD (ABC) scale: a reliable and valid questionnaire. COPD; 13(4):431-438. doi: 10.3109/15412555.2015.1118025

Smith MD, Chang AT, Hodges PW (2016) Balance recovery is compromised and trunk muscle activity is increased in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Gait Posture; 43:101-7. doi: 10.1016/j.gaitpost.2015.09.004

Sorenson HM (2013) Improving end-of-life care for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Ther Adv Respir Dis; 7(6):320-6. doi: 10.1177/1753465813504803

Soriano JB (2017) α1-Antitrypsin deficiency: count me in please! Eur Respir J, 49(1):1601941; doi: 10.1183/13993003.01941-2016
• α1-Antitrypsin deficiency occurs in 1% of people who have COPD

Spahija J (2010) Factors discriminating spontaneous pursed-lips breathing use in patients with COPD. COPD, 7, 4, 254-261
informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.3109/15412555.2010.496820
• out of 57 patients, 6 spontaneously performed PLB at rest, exercise and recovery, 18 during exercise and recovery, 7 during recovery only and 20 not at all.

Spiegler P (2012) Antibiotics for prophylaxis against exacerbations of COPD. Clin Pulm Med, 19, 2, 102-103

Spruit MA, Franssen FME (2010) What to do before pulmonary rehabilitation to improve adherence? Chron Respir Dis, 7, 3, 131–33

Stolz D, Leeming D, Kristensen J et al (2017) Systemic biomarkers of collagen and elastin turnover are associated with clinically relevant outcomes in COPD. Chest; 151(1):47-59.
doi:10.1016/j.chest.2016.08.1440.

Stone H, Pye A, Stockley RA (2014) Disease associations in alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency. Respir Med; 108(2):338-343

Suau SJ, DeBlieux PMC (2016) Management of acute exacerbation of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in the emergency department. Emerg Med Clin; 34(1):15–37. doi: dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.emc.2015.08.002

Suhling H, Rademacher J, Dettmer S et al (2016) Colonization and bronchiectasis in patients with advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Chr Obstr Pulm Dis Open Access; 1:1
chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease.imedpub.com/colonization-and-bronchiectasis-in-patients-with-advanced-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease.php?aid=8176

Sutherland ER et al (2002) Safety of sputum induction in moderate-to-severe COPD. Respir Med, 96, 482-6
www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6WWS-46872V2-2&_user=10&_coverDate=07%2F31%2F2002&_alid=481328176&_rdoc=1&_fmt=summary&_orig=search&_cdi=7138&_sort=d&_docanchor=&view=c&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=261170aab66b9111f51d6e6d96b56d5a
• protocol in flow-chart format

Suzuki M, Muro S, Ando Y et al (2012) A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Acupuncture in Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. JAMA Internal Medicine, 172, 11, June 11
archinte.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=1151703

Svenningsenab S, Paulinab GA, Sheikhab K et al (2016) Oscillatory positive expiratory pressure in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. COPD, 13(1): 66-74. doi: 10.3109/15412555.2015.1043523

Tang CY, Taylor NF, Blackstock FC (2010) Chest physiotherapy for patients admitted to hospital with an acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Physiotherapy, 96, 1, 1-13
www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B7CVK-4X8YMK8-1&_user=10&_coverDate=03%2F31%2F2010&_rdoc=2&_fmt=high&_orig=browse&_srch=doc-info%28%23toc%2318081%232010%23999039998%231628125%23FLA%23display%23Volume%29&_cdi=18081&_sort=d&_docanchor=&_ct=41&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=0ab0abb4d887e2c2904167b19532ab1f
• systematic review showing the benefits of PEP and IPPB for sputum clearance, and exercise for gas exchange, SOB and HRQL

Tang CY, Taylor NF, Blackstock FC (2013) Patients admitted with an acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease had positive experiences exercising from the beginning of their hospital stay: A qualitative analysis. Chronic Respir Dis; 10(4):197-205, doi:10.1177/1479972313504941

Teixeira PJZ, Porto L, Kristensen CH et al (2015) Post-traumatic stress symptoms and exacerbations in COPD patients. COPD; 12(1): 90-95. doi: 10.3109/15412555.2014.922063

Testelmans DT, Crul KM, Maes K et al (2010) Atrophy and hypertrophy signaling in the diaphragm of patients with COPD. Eur Respir J, 35, 549-56

Tinkelman DG (2006) Symptom-based questionnaire for differentiating COPD and asthma. Respiration, 73, 296-305
content.karger.com/ProdukteDB/produkte.asp?Aktion=ShowAbstract&ProduktNr=224278&Ausgabe=231763&ArtikelNr=90141

Toney BS, Lynch-Smith D (2016) Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and ventilator-associated pneumonia: an analysis and literature review into the intensive care unit exacerbation progression and acute pulmonary management. Dimens Crit Care Nurs; 35(1):16-22. doi: 10.1097/DCC.0000000000000156.
• multiple drug-resistant bacteria create an increased risk of ventilator-associated pneumonia

Torres I, Cabrera-Martos I, Díaz-Pelegrina A et al (2017) Physical and functional impairment during and after hospitalization in subjects with severe COPD exacerbation. Respir Care; 62(2):209-214
• functional impairment worsens over the month following an exacerbation

Triantafyllakis IL, Giagkou E, Zikos Malakos Z (2016) Crosstalk between the lungs and the gut in inflammatory bowel diseases. Chr Obstr Pulm Dis Open Access; 1:1
chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease.imedpub.com/crosstalk-between-the-lungs-and-the-gut-in-inflammatory-bowel-diseases.php?aid=7849

Tse HN, Tseng CZ, Wong KY et al (2016) Frequent exacerbator: the phenotype at risk of depressive symptoms in geriatric copd patients. Lung; 194(4):665-73. doi: 10.1007/s00408-016-9887-y
• depressive symptoms are associated with frequent exacerbations and SOB

Tsiligianni IG, Molen T, Moraitaki D et al (2012) Assessing health status in COPD. A head-to-head comparison between the COPD assessment test (CAT) and the clinical COPD questionnaire (CCQ). BMC Pulm Med, 12, 20
www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2466/12/20/abstract

Valenza MC, Torres-Sanchez I, Cabrera-Martos I et al (2016) Physical activity as a predictor of absence of frailty in subjects with stable COPD and COPD exacerbation. Respir Care; 61(2):212-219

Van Gestel AJR (2010) Autonomic dysfunction in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). J Thorac Dis, 2, 4, 215–222

Vaudan S, Ratano D, Beuret P et al (2015) Impact of a dedicated noninvasive ventilation team on intubation and mortality rates in severe COPD exacerbations. Respir Care; 60(10):1404-1408

Verhamme KM, Stricker BH (2016) Cardiac effects of current treatments of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Lancet Respir Med; 4(2):149–164. doi: dx.doi.org/10.1016/s2213-2600(15)00518-4

Vestbo J, Lange P (2016) Natural history of COPD: Focusing on change in FEV1. Respirology; 21(1):34-43. doi: 10.1111/resp.12589

Vilaro J (2009) Clinical assessment of peripheral muscle function in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am J Phys Med Rehab, 88, 1, 39-46
www.amjphysmedrehab.com/pt/re/ajpmr/abstract.00002060-200901000-00006.htm;jsessionid=JTMLMh9MK5C9NmsrGfYNyFXvS2pJkX1bnkG6xMJ91QqQBDt7Q5hZ!-1035908147!181195628!8091!-1
• impaired muscle endurance is associated with impaired O2 transport and utilization, resulting in altered muscle bioenergetics

Waatevik M et al (2012) Different COPD disease characteristics are related to different outcomes in the 6-minute walk test. COPD, 9, 3, 227-234

Walters JAE, Tan DJ, White CJ et al (2014) Systemic corticosteroids for acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev; (9):CD001288

Wan ES, DeMeo DL, Hersh CP et al (2012) Clinical predictors of frequent exacerbations in subjects with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Respir Med, 105, 4, 588–594
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3046312/?tool=pmcentrez

Wang S, Wei G, Yao T et al (2016) FEV1/FEV6 in primary care is a reliable and easy method for the diagnosis of COPD. Respir Care; 61(3):349-353. doi: 10.4187/respcare.04348

Wearing J, Beaumont S, Forbes D et al (2016) The use of spinal manipulative therapy in the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a systematic review. J Altern Complement Med; 22(2):108-14. doi: 10.1089/acm.2015.0199
• some spinal manipulative techniques may improve lung function and exercise performance

Wedzicha JA, Singh R, Mackay AJ (2014) Acute COPD exacerbations. Clin Chest Med; 35(1):157-163. doi: 10.1016/j.ccm.2013.11.001

Werre ND, Boucher EL, Beachey WD et al (2015) Comparison of therapist-directed and physician-directed respiratory care in COPD subjects with acute pneumonia. Respir Care; 60(2):151-154

Willgoss TG, Yohannes AM Mengistu A (2013) Anxiety disorders in patients with COPD: a systematic review. Respir Care, 58, 5, 858-66

Williams V, Bruton A (2007) What really matters to patients living with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease? Chron Respir Dis, 4, 77-85
• enabling patients to `participate' rather than just `do' is important across the spectrum of severity of COPD:

Winstanley L, Daunt M, Macfarlane J (2007) Doctors’ action and attitude to current smokers limited by COPD or angina, compared with patients limited by alcohol or drug abuse. Thorax, 62, suppl.III, A146

Wouters EFM (2006) Nonpharmacological modulation of dynamic hyperinflation. Eur Respir Rev, 15, 100, 90-96
err.ersjournals.com/content/15/100/90.full
• breathlessness caused by dynamic hyperinflation may be relieved by pulmonary rehabilitation or NIV
• responses to supplemental oxygen are highly variable and unpredictable.

Yan Q-c, Sung X, Wang Y-m et al (2015) Systematic and endothelial inflammation and endothelial progenitor cell levels in emphysematous rats exposed to intermittent hypoxia. Respir Care; 60(2):279-289

Yilmaz YGD, Çirak Y, Demir YP et al (2016) Immediate effect of manual therapy on respiratory functions and inspiratory muscle strength in patients with COPD. Internat J COPD; 11:1353-1357. doi:10.2147/COPD.S107408
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4920225/

Yorgancioglu A (2010) Relation between quality of life and morbidity and mortality in COPD patients. COPD, 7, 4, 248-53
informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.3109/15412555.2010.496816
• St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire shows greater correlation with acute illness in COPD than respiratory function tests

Zheng P-F, Shu L, Si C-J et al (2016) Dietary patterns and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a meta-analysis. COPD; 13(4):515-22. doi: 10.3109/15412555.2015.1098606

Zhou Y (2013) The association between BMI and COPD: The results of two population-based studies in Guangzhou, China. COPD, 10(5):567-572
• low BMI may be both cause and effect of COPD

Zurek M, Sladen L, Johansson E et al (2016) Assessing the relationship between lung density and function with oxygen-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging in a mouse model of emphysema. PLoS One; 11(3):e0151211. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0151211


ACPRC = Association of Chartered Physiotherapists in Respiratory Care
ADL = activities of daily living
BMJ = British Medical Journal
BTS = British Thoracic Society
CVS = cardiovascular system
FEV1,= forced expiratory volume in one second
FRC = functional residual capacity
HRQL = health-related quality of life
IMT = inspiratory muscle training
IPPB = intermittent positive pressure breathing
MI = myocardial infarct
MRC = Medical Research Council
NEJM = New England Journal of Medicine
NICE = National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence
NIV = non-invasive ventilation
PEP = positive expiratory pressure
PLB = pursed lips breathing
PR = pulmonary rehabilitation
QoL = quality of life
RFT = respiratory function test
SOB = shortness of breath
VO2 = oxygen consumption