(SEE ALSO – Acute head injury, ARDS, Asthma, COPD, Cystic fibrosis,
ICU conditions)

ERS (2017) European Respiratory Society guidelines for the diagnosis of primary ciliary dyskinesia. Eur Respir J; 49(1):1601090. doi: 10.1183/13993003.01090-201

NICE guidelines (2016) Motor neurone disease: assessment and management [NG42]

NHS Evidence library on respiratory diseases:

NICE GUIDELINE (2013) Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in adults: diagnosis and management (CG163)

NICE Guideline (2014) Pneumonia in adults: diagnosis and management (CG191)

Bradley B, Branley HM, Egan JJ, et al (2008) Thorax, 63 Suppl 5: v1-v58.

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Anon (2008) Diabetes link to caesarean births. Nurs Times, 104, 6

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• weak expiratory muscles are the cause of over 90% of respiratory failure episodes in neurological patients

Ballas SK (2016) From individualized treatment of sickle cell pain to precision medicine: a 40-year journey. J Clin Med Res; 8(5):357-60. doi: 10.14740/jocmr2508w

Bors M, Tomic R, Perlman DM et al (2016) Cognitive function in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Chr Respir Dis; 12(4):365-72. doi: 10.1177/1479972315603552

Brown D, Claffey A, Harding R (2016) Evaluation of a physiotherapy-led group rehabilitation intervention for adults living with HIV: referrals, adherence and outcomes. AIDS Care; 21(8):1347-1356. doi: 10.1111/resp.12841

Chang A, Paratz J, Rollston J (2002) Ventilatory effects of neurophysiological facilitation and passive movement in patients with neurological injury. Austr J Physiother, 48, 305-9
• neurophysiological facilitation improves minute volume and SpO2 in neurological patients

Cho HE, Lee JW, Kang SW et al (2016) Comparison of pulmonary functions at onset of ventilatory insufficiency in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, duchenne muscular dystrophy, and myotonic muscular dystrophy. Ann Rehabil Med; 40(1):74-80. doi: 10.5535/arm.2016.40.1.74

Collini P, Morris A (2016) Maintaining lung health with longstanding HIV. Curr Opin Infect Dis; 29(1):31-8. doi: 10.1097/QCO.0000000000000221

Craig SK (2017) Pathophysiology of respiratory disease and its significance to anaesthesia. Anaesth Int Care Med; 18(1):10–15. doi: 10.1016/j.mpaic.2016.10.007
• overview of pathology of respiratory diseases

Crinion SJ, Ryan S, McNicholas WT (2017) Obstructive sleep apnoea as a cause of nocturnal nondipping blood pressure: recent evidence regarding clinical importance and underlying mechanisms. Eur Respir J; 49(1): 1601818. doi: 10.1183/13993003.01818-2016

Curtis A (2009) Why is polio still an issue for health professionals today? Internat J Ther Rehabil, 16, 2, 66 - 67
• polio survivors are now experiencing a constellation of new symptoms known as post-polio syndrome

Dalgas U (2012) Exercise and disease progression in multiple sclerosis: can exercise slow down the progression of multiple sclerosis? Ther Adv Neurol Disord, 5, 2, 81–95. doi: 10.1177/1756285611430719

Danoff SK (2017) Toward understanding patient experience in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Eur Respir J; 49(1):1602202; doi: 10.1183/13993003.02202-2016

Darbari DS, Neely M, van den Ander J et al (2012) Increased clearance of morphine in sickle cell disease: implications for pain management. J Pain, 12, 5, 531–538; doi: 10.1016/j.jpain.2010.10.012
• high doses of morphine are required because the drug clears 3–10 times quicker than in the general population

Denning DW, Cadranel J, Beigelman-Aubry C et al (2016) Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis: rationale and clinical guidelines for diagnosis and management. Eur Respir J; 47(1):45-68. doi: 10.1183/13993003.00583-2015

Dhillon SS, Dexter EU (2012) Advances in bronchoscopy for lung cancer. J Carcinog, 11, 19. doi: 10.4103/1477-3163.105337

Dimeo F, Schwartz S, Wesel N (2008) Effects of an endurance and resistance exercise program on persistent cancer-related fatigue after treatment. Ann Oncol, 19, 8, 1495-9

Drummond MB (2010) Cross sectional analysis of respiratory symptoms in an injection drug user cohort. BMC Pulm Med, 10, 27. doi:10.1186/1471-2466-10-27
• intravenous drug users risk obstructive lung diseases and HIV

Dziubek W, Kowalska J, Kusztal M et al (2016) The level of anxiety and depression in dialysis patients undertaking regular physical exercise training - a preliminary study. Kidney Blood Press Res; 41(1):86-98. doi: 10.1159/000368548
• exercise is beneficial in reducing anxiety and depression

Eastburn MM, Katelaris PH, Chang AB (2007) Defining the relationship between gastroesophageal reflux and cough: probabilities, possibilities and limitations. Cough, 3, 4.
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Eckert DJ, Younes MK (2014) Arousal from sleep: implications for obstructive sleep apnea pathogenesis and treatment. J Appl Phys; 116(3):302-313. doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.00649.2013

Egan JJ (2011) Follow-up and nonpharmacological management of the idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis patient. Eur Respir Rev, 20, 120, 114-117

Easby J, Abraham BK, Bonner SM (2003) Prone ventilation following witnessed pulmonary aspiration: the effect on oxygenation. Int Care Med, 29, 12, 2303-6
• if a patient aspirates in supine, positioning the patient prone immediately aids postural drainage, improves oxygenation by altering V/Q relationships similarly to ARDS, opens dependent alveoli and helps prevent progression to established pneumonitis

Eccles R (2002) Acute cooling of the body surface and the common cold. Rhinology, 40,109-14

Fahim A, Crooks M, Hart SP et al (2011) Gastroesophageal reflux and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: a review. Pulm Med, 2011: 634613

Fekri MS (2014) Chronic aspiration of gastric and duodenal contents and their effects on inflammatory cytokine production in respiratory system of rats. Iranian Allergy, Asthma Immunol; 13(1):40-46.

Feldman, Anderson R (2016) Bacterial respiratory infections complicating human immunodeficiency virus. Semin Respir Crit Care Med; 37(2):214-29. doi: 10.1055/s-0036-1572558

Ferreira S (2010) Prevalence and characteristics of sleep apnoea in patients with stable heart failure. BMC Pulm Med, 10, 9, doi:10.1186/1471-2466-10-9
• sleep apnoea is is underdiagnosed in HF and there is a likely correlation between the two

Ferreiro L, Suárez-Antelo J, Valdés L (2017). Pleural procedures in the management of malignant effusions. Ann Thorac Med; 12(1):3-10;year=2017;volume=12;issue=1;spage=3;epage=10;aulast=Ferreiro

Fregonezi G, Azevedo IG, Resqueti VR et al (2015) Muscle impairment in neuromuscular disease using an expiratory/inspiratory pressure ratio. Respir Care; 60(4):533-539

Furukawa T, Taniguchi H, Ando M et al (2017) The St. George’s Respiratory Questionnaire as a prognostic factor in IPF. Respir Res; 18:18. doi: 10.1186/s12931-017-0503-3

Ghannouchi I, Speyer R, Doma K et al (2016) Swallowing function and chronic respiratory diseases: systematic review. Respir Med; 117:54-64. doi: 10.1016/j.rmed.2016.05.024

Gomes-Filho IS (2010) Respiratory disease and the role of oral bacteria. J Oral Microbiol, 2: 10.3402/jom.v2i0.5811. doi: 10.3402/jom.v2i0.5811

Granger CL (2016) Physiotherapy management of lung cancer. J Physiother; 62(2):60-7. doi: 10.1016/j.jphys.2016.02.010

Gunderman RB, Lydon BT (2016) Respiratory disease: an update for radiologists. Acad Radiol; 23(1):108-11. doi: 10.1016/j.acra.2015.09.005

Haga T, Kurihara M, Kataoka H et al (2013) Influence of weather conditions on the onset of primary spontaneous pneumothorax: positive association with decreased atmospheric pressure. Ann Thorac Cardiovasc Surg; 19(3):212-15

Hagmeyer L, Theegarten D, Treml M et al (2016) Validation of transbronchial cryobiopsy in interstitial lung disease - interim analysis of a prospective trial and critical review of the literature. Sarcoidosis Vasc Diffuse Lung Dis; 33(1):2-9

Hasiloglu ZI, Havan N, Rezvani A et al (2012) Lung parenchymal changes in patients with ankylosing spondylitis. World J Radiol; 4(5): 215–219
• 59% of patients show lung parenchymal changes

Henry M et al (2003) BTS guidelines for the management of spontaneous pneumothorax. Thorax, 58(Suppl.11), ii39-ii52
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Hobbs S (2014) The idiopathic interstitial pneumonias: an update and review. Radiol Clin North Am; 52(1):105-20. doi: 10.1016/j.rcl.2013.08.001

Holland AE (2010) Review series: Aspects of interstitial lung disease: Exercise limitation in interstitial lung disease - mechanisms, significance and therapeutic options. Chronic Resp Dis, 7, 2, 101-111
• assessment of exercise capacity may assist with diagnosis and indicate prognosis
• steroids may contribute to myopathy of peripheral and respiratory muscles

Holt V (2012) Scent of a patient: an underestimated role in clinical practice? (letter) Br J Gen Practice, 62, 602, 461

Hoo ZH, Whyte MKB (2011) Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Thorax, 200515. doi:10.1136/thoraxjnl-2011-200515

Hoogerwerf MA (2012) “Feelings are facts”: Illness perceptions in patients with lung cancer. Respir Med, 106, 8, 1170-1176

Kaneda H, Nakano T, Taniguchi Y et al (2013) Three-step management of pneumothorax: time for a re-think on initial management. Interact CardioVasc Thorac Surg, 16, 2, 186-192 doi:10.1093/icvts/ivs445

Katz SL, Barrowman N, Monsour A et al (2015) Long-term effects of lung volume recruitment on maximal inspiratory capacity and vital capacity in Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Ann Am Thorac Soc; 13(2):217-22. doi: 10.1513/AnnalsATS.201507-475BC

Kernohan G (2010) Do people with Parkinsons disease need palliative care? Palliat Med, 24, 2,
• yes they do.

Koh KP, Fassett RG, Sharman JE et al (2010) Effect of intradialytic versus home-based aerobic exercise training on physical function and vascular parameters in hemodialysis patients: a randomized pilot study. Am J Kidney Dis, 55, 1, 88-99.

Komatsu T, Shibata S, Seo R et al (2010) Unilateral re-expansion pulmonary edema following treatment of pneumothorax with exceptionally massive sputum production, followed by circulatory collapse. Can Respir J, 17, 2, 53–5

Kosmidis C, Denning DW (2015) The clinical spectrum of pulmonary aspergillosis. Thorax;70:270-77. doi:10.1136/thoraxjnl-2014-206291

Kropski JA, Lawson WE, Young LR et al (2013) Genetic studies provide clues on the pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Dis Model Mech, 6, 1, 9–17. doi: 10.1242/dmm.010736

Lee JH, Lee KW, Kim SB et al (2016) The Functional Dysphagia Scale is a useful tool for predicting aspiration pneumonia in patients with Parkinson disease. Ann Rehab Med; 40(3):440-6. doi: 10.5535/arm.2016.40.3.440.

Lei M, Liu Y, Liu S et al (2016) Individual strategy for lung cancer patients with metastatic spinal cord compression. Eur J Surg Oncol; 42(5):728-34. doi: 10.1016/j.ejso.2016.01.018

Lubin JH, Muscat J, Gaudet MM et al 2012) An examination of male and female odds ratios by BMI, cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption for cancers of the oral cavity, pharynx and larynx in pooled data from 15 case-control studies. Cancer Causes Control, 22, 9, 1217–1231. doi: 10.1007/s10552-011-9792-x

Lynch JP, Huynh RH, Fishbein MC et al (2016) Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: epidemiology, clinical features, prognosis, and management. Semin Respir Crit Care Med; 37(3):331-57. doi: 10.1055/s-0036-1582011

Macpherson CE, Bassile CC (2016) Pulmonary physical therapy techniques to enhance survival in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a systematic review. J Neurol Phys Ther; 40(3):165-75. doi: 10.1097/NPT.0000000000000136
• inspiratory muscle training, lung volume recruitment and assisted cough can improve respiratory outcome and possibly increase survival

Magnard J, Deschamps T, Cornu C et al (2013) Effects of a six-month intradialytic physical ACTIvity program and adequate NUTritional support on protein-energy wasting, physical functioning and quality of life in chronic hemodialysis patients: ACTINUT study protocol for a randomised controlled trial. BMC Nephrol; 14:259. doi: 10.1186/1471-2369-14-259
• kidney atients on accurate nutritional support are fine to exercise

Margaritopoulos GA, Romagnoli M, Poletti V et al (2012) Recent advances in the pathogenesis and clinical evaluation of pulmonary fibrosis. Eur Respir Rev, 21, 48-5

Markovitz & Cooper (2010) Mechanisms of exercise limitation and pulmonary rehabilitation for patients with pulmonary fibrosis/restrictive lung disease. Chr Respir Dis, 7, 1, 47-60

Martin MD, Chung JH, Kanne JP et al (2016) Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. J Thorac Imaging; 31(3):127-39. doi: 10.1097/RTI.0000000000000204

McKim DA, Katz SL, Barrowman N et al (2012) Lung volume recruitment slows pulmonary function decline in Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Arch Phys Med Rehab, 93, 7, 1117-1122

Mochizuki Y, Hayashi K, Nakayama Y et al (2016) ALS patients with ability to communicate after long-term mechanical ventilation have confined degeneration to the motor neuron system. J Neurol Sci; 363:245-8. doi: 10.1016/j.jns.2016.02.068

Murray BJ (2007) Brain death by a thousand hypoxic cuts in sleep. Am J Respir Crit Care Med, 175, 528-9.
• cognitive decline correlates with recurrent respiratory events in sleep

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• effect of spasticity and contractures on mechanics of breathing, importance of maintaining endurance and mobility of thoracic cage after CVA

Nathan SD (2014) Pulmonary hypertension complicating pulmonary fibrosis: bad and ugly, but good to treat? Thorax; 69(2):107-108 doi: 10.1136/thoraxjnl-2013-204964

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Navaratnam V et al (2011) The rising incidence of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in the UK. Thorax, 66, 462-7

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O’Kelly S, Smith SM, Lane S (2011) Chronic respiratory disease and multimorbidity: Prevalence and impact in a general practice setting. Respir Med, 105, 2, 236-242
• the majority of patients with chronic respiratory disease have multimorbidity.

Park SY, Kim SM, Sung JJ et al (2014) Nocturnal hypoxia in ALS is related to cognitive dysfunction and can occur as clusters of desaturations. PLoS One. 18;8(9):e75324. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0075324

Patton H, Misel M, Gish RG et al (2012) Acute liver failure in adults: an evidence-based management protocol for clinicians. Gastroenterol Hepatol (NY), 8(3): 161–212

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• eliminating tobacco smoking is the best strategy to prevent lung cancer.
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6MD = six-minute distance
BTS = British Thoracic Society
ILD = interstitial lung disease
IPF = idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
NICE = National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence
P(A-a)O2 = alveolar-arterial oxygen pressure difference
PR = pulmonary rehabilitation
RR = respiratory rate
SOB = shortness of breath
VA/Q = ventilation/perfusion