Respiratory medication, inhalers and nebulisers
App on inhaler
Information on the use of respiratory medicines in the UK (2010):

AARC (2015) Clinical Practice Guideline: effectiveness of pharmacologic airway clearance therapies in hospitalized patients. Respir Care; 60(7):1071-7. doi: 10.4187/respcare.04165
• β2-agonists can increase ciliary beat frequency in healthy subjects, but do not have a significant impact on mucus clearance in people with lung disease, and anticholinergics may reduce mucus secretion, do not improve mucus clearance

ERS GUIDELINES on the use of NEBULISERS. Boe J et al (2001) European Respiratory Society Guidelines on the use of nebulizers. Euro Respir J, 18, 228-42

Ahn R (2017) Financial ties of principal investigators and randomized controlled trial outcomes: cross sectional study
BMJ; 356:i6770. doi:
• financial ties of principal investigators are independently associated with positive clinical trial results

Ali HD, Worku GS, Alemayehu AA et al (2014) Competence in metered dose inhaler technique among dispensers in Mekelle. Allerg Asthma Clin Immun; 10,18: doi:10.1186/1710-1492-10-18
• no pharmacist in one country was able to demonstrate effective use of a metered dose inhaler

Albertson T (2013) The pharmacological approach to the elderly COPD patient. Drugs Aging; 30(7):467-77

Aleti VS (2012) Glucocorticoid therapy for trauma - ready for prime time? Crit Care, 16, 1, 301. doi: 10.1186/cc10596

Angus (1996) Comparison of the acute effects on gas exchange of nasal ventilation and doxapram in exacerbations of COPD. Thorax, 51, 1048-50.
• doxapram is unsuited to ventilatory failure caused by fatigue

Anon (2015) Do antibiotics cause obesity? Arch Dis Child; 100(7):622. doi: 10.1136/archdischild-2015-308955

Arfè A, Nicotra F, Cerveri I et al (2016) Incidence, predictors, and clinical implications of discontinuing therapy with inhaled long-acting bronchodilators among patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. COPD; 13(5):540-546. doi: 10.3109/15412555.2016.1141877
• over half of COPD patients discontinue their long-active bronchodilators

Argyropoulou P (1993) Buspirone effect on breathlessness and exercise in patients with COPD. Respiration, 60, 216-20.
• buspirone reduces SOB and increases exercise tolerance, without sedation effects

Ari A (2015) Patient education and adherence to aerosol therapy. Respir Care; 60(6):941-957

Ashfield TA, Syddall HE, Martin HJ (2010) Grip strength and cardiovascular drug use in older people. Age Ageing, 39, 185-91
• some cardiac drugs (furosamide, nitrates and calcium channel blockers) are associated with reduced grip strength
Barnes PJ (1995) COPD. Update, 51,91-7.
• respiratory stimulants may override the protective function of fatigue

Atreya S, Kumar G, Datta SS (2016) Gabapentin for chronic refractory cancer cough. Indian J Palliat Care; 22(1):94-96. doi: 10.4103/0973-1075.173940.

Barnes PJ (2013) Theophylline. Am J Respir Crit Care Med; 188(8):901-906. doi: 10.1164/rccm.201302-0388PP
• as well as bronchodilating, theophylline can reduce inflammation and reverse steroid resistance

Bauer A, McGlynn P, Bovet LL (2009) The influence of breathing pattern during nebulization on the delivery of arformoterol using a breath simulator. Respir Care, 54, 11, 1488-92
• a long inspiratory pause increases inhaled dose

Berlinski, A (2015) Assessing new technologies in aerosol medicine: strengths and limitations. Respir Care; 60(6):833-849

Bolland MJ, Barber PA, Doughty RN (2010) Vascular events in healthy older women receiving calcium supplementation. BMJ, 341:c3691
• meta-analysis of 11 RCTs showed calcium supplements (not co-administered with vitamin D) to be associated with approx 30% increase in incidence of MI (particularly in subjects with above-average dietary intake of calcium), though no individual trial reported a statistically significant effect
• confirmation that calcium supplements increase bone density.

Bossard MK (2013) Help with metered dose inhalers: valved holding chambers. J Asthma Allergy Educators, 4(5):237-9. doi:10.1177/2150129713503658

Budnitz DS, Lovegrove MC, Shehab N (2011) Emergency hospitalizations for adverse drug events in older Americans. N Engl J Med, 365, 2002-12
• adverse side effects are a significant preventable cause of hospitalization in older adults

Bugis AA, Sheard MM, Fink JB et al (2015) Comparison of aerosol delivery by face mask and tracheostomy collar. Respir Care; 60(9):1220-1226

Cavalcante AN, Sprung J, Schroeder DR et al (2017) Multimodal analgesic therapy with gabapentin and its association with postoperative respiratory depression.
Anesth Analg; 125(1):141-146. doi: 10.1213/ANE.0000000000001719

Calverley PMA (2017) Through a glass darkly: inhaled corticosteroids, airway inflammation and COPD. Eur Respir J; 49(1):1602201. doi: 10.1183/13993003.02201-2016
• if eosinophils are present, COPD patients are likely to respond to steroids

Castleberry AW, Bishaw, M, Worni M et al (2017) Medication nonadherence after lung transplantation in adult recipients. Ann Thorac Surg; 103(1):274–280

Cazzola M (2006) Should the choice of a long-acting bronchodilator in the long-term therapy of COPD depend entirely on the onset of action? Respiration, 73, 410-11
• FEV1 is only weakly correlated with patient-centered outcomes such as dyspnoea
• tiotropium reduces lung hyperinflation
• tolerance to bronchodilation occurs with long-acting beta2-agonists

Charan NB (2001) Does Sildenafil also improve breathing? Chest, 120, 305 - 6
• Viagra may reduce breathlessness and pulmonary hypertension in COPD patients

Charmot D (2012) Non-systemic drugs: a critical review. Curr Pharm Des. 18(10): 1434–1445. doi: 10.2174/138161212799504858

Chowdhury BA et al (2011) Assessing the safety of adding LABAs to inhaled corticosteroids for treating asthma. N Engl J Med, 364, 2473-2475
• long-acting beta-agonists have been associated with serious adverse outcomes such as asthma-related hospitalization, need for intubation and death.

Colice GL (2009) Getting back to the basics: administering inhaled bronchodilators. Respir Care, 54, 4, 455-7

Cohen HA (2015) Demonstration of placebo effect for nonspecific cough medicine. J Pediatrics; 166(5):1320–1323. doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2015.02.060

Cott TEV, Yehle KS, DeCrane SK et al 2013) Amiodarone-induced pulmonary toxicity: case study with syndrome analysis. Heart Lung; 42(4)262-266

Crotty M, Meyers S, Hampton N et al (2015) Impact of antibacterials on subsequent resistance and clinical outcomes in adult patients with viral pneumonia: an opportunity for stewardship. Crit Care:19:404. doi:10.1186/s13054
• antibacterial drugs given for viral pneumonia increase the risk of multidrug-resistant infection

Martin AR, Finlay WH (2015) Nebulizers for drug delivery to the lungs. Expert Opin Drug Deliv; 12(6):889-900. doi: 10.1517/17425247.2015.995087
Currie GP. Douglas, JG (2006) Oxygen and inhalers. BMJ, 333, 34-36

Currow DC, Ekstrom M, Abernethy AP (2014) Opioids for chronic refractory breathlessness: right patient, right route? Drugs; 74(1):1-6
• regular low doses of sustained-release morphine can safely reduce breathlessness without respiratory depression or obtundation

Daviskas E, Rubin BK (2013) Effect of inhaled dry powder mannitol on mucus and its clearance. Expert Rev Respir Med; 7(1):65-75. doi: 10.1586/ers.12.72

De Benedictis F, Bush A (2012) Corticosteroids in respiratory diseases in children. Am J Respir Crit Care Med, 185, 1, 12-23
• in children, adverse effects, especially growth and adrenal suppression, are induced by systemic steroids, and to a lesser extent by inhaled steroids

De Blasio F, Virchow JC, Polverino M et al (2011) Cough management: a practical approach. Cough; 7:7. doi:10.1186/1745-9974-7-7*~hmac=9862db8b5308afef93546c28ccf5162f0dce1218938330ea3363596522583a51
• drugs to control cough.
• no mention of physical means to control cough.

de Boer A, Cohen AF (2016) Digoxin and mortality: lessons for observational studies. Br J Clin Pharmacol; 81(1):4-5. doi: 10.1111/bcp.12791

Demedts M (2005) High-dose acetylcysteine in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. N Engl J Med, 353, 2229-42
• 600 mg tds, added to prednisone and azathioprine, preserves vital capacity and diffusion capacity

Deshpande DA, Wang WCH, McIlmoyle EL et al (2010) Bitter taste receptors on airway smooth muscle bronchodilate by localized calcium signaling and reverse obstruction. Nature Medicine; 16:1299–1304. doi:10.1038/nm.2237
• bitter taste receptors in the airways can relax airway smooth muscle threefold more than β2-adrenergic bronchodilators.

Djamin RS, Uzun S, Kluytmans JA et al (2016) Macrolides for reducing acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: new evidence. Clin Pulm Med; 32(7):16–22
• macrolide antibiotics may help prevent COPD exacerbations

Domenico S (2014) Current and novel bronchodilators in respiratory disease. Curr Opin Pulm Med; 20(1):73-86

Drummond MB, Dasenbrook EC, Pitz MW et al (2008) Inhaled corticosteroids in patients with stable COPD: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA, 300(20): 2407–2416
inhaled steroids do not reduce mortality in COPD and are associated with higher risk of pneumonia

DTB (2013) Drug assessment: UK style. Drug Ther Bull; 51(12):141-4. doi: 10.1136/dtb.2013.12.0225.

El Taoum KK, Jinxiang X, JongWong K et al (2015) In vitro evaluation of aerosols delivered via the nasal route. Respir Care; 60(7):1015-1025

Ehrmann S, Roche-Campo F, Bodet-Contentin L et al (2016) Aerosol therapy in intensive and intermediate care units: prospective observation of 2808 critically ill patients. Int Care Med; 42(2):192-201. doi: 10.1007/s00134-015-4114-5
• aerosol therapy concerns every fourth critically ill patient and one-fifth of ventilated patients.

Emery MJ, Groves CC, Kruse TN et al (2016) Ventilation and the response to hypercapnia after morphine in opioid-naive and opioid-tolerant rats. Anesthesiology; 124(4):945-57. doi: 10.1097/ALN.0000000000000997
• repeated administration produces tolerance to opioid analgesia, prompting increased dosing, but depression of ventilation may not gain tolerance to the same degree.

Ernst P, Gonzalez AP, Brassard P et al (2007) Inhaled corticosteroid use in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and the risk of hospitalization for pneumonia. Am J Respir Crit Care Med, 176, 162-166

Esposito S (2017) Inhaled antibiotic therapy for the treatment of upper respiratory tract infections no access. J Aerosol Med Pulm Drug Deliv; 30(1):14-19.

Eurich DT (2010) Recurrent community-acquired pneumonia in patients starting acid-suppressing drug. Am J Med, 123, 1, 47-53
• anti-acid drugs increase the risk of nosocomial pneumonia

Fan VS, Gylys-Colwell I, Locke E et al (2016) Overuse of short-acting beta-agonist bronchodilators in COPD during periods of clinical stability. Respir Med; 116:100-6. doi: 10.1016/j.rmed.2016.05.011

Feldman G, Siler T, Prasad N (2010) Efficacy and safety of indacaterol 150 μg once-daily in COPD. BMC Pulm Med, 10, 11. doi:10.1186/1471-2466-10-11
• double-blind study showing that this once-daily inhaled long-acting β2-agonist provides sustained bronchodilation with minimal side effects

Fowler LH, Lee S (2017) Antibiotic trends amid multidrug-resistant gram-negative infections in intensive care units. Crit Care Nurs Clin; 29(1):111–118

Franken LG, Masman AD, de Winter BCM et al (2016) Pharmacokinetics of morphine, morphine-3-glucuronide and morphine-6-glucuronide in terminally ill adult patients. Clin Pharmacokinetics; 55:697-709. doi: 10.1007/s40262-015-0345-4

Godara N, Godara R, Khullar M (2011) Impact of inhalation therapy on oral health. Lung India, 28, 4, 272-5

Golder FJ, Hewitt MM, McLeod JF (2013) Respiratory stimulant drugs in the post-operative setting. Resp Physiol Neurobiol; 189(2):395-402

Gotfried MH, Kerwin EM, Lawrence D et al (2012) Efficacy of Indacaterol 75 μg once-daily on dyspnea and health status: results of two double-blind, placebo-controlled 12-week studies. COPD. 9, 6, 629-636. doi: 10.3109/15412555.2012.729623

Göriş S (2013) The effects of training on inhaler technique and quality of life in patients with COPD; 26(6):336-344
• accurate instruction is cost-effective, reducing exacerbations and SOB and improving QoL

Hatley RHM (2017) Variability in delivered dose from pressurized metered-dose inhaler formulations due to a delay between shake and fire. J Aerosol Med Pulm Drug Deliv; 30(1):71-7

Hess DR (2015) Aerosol therapy during noninvasive ventilation or high-flow nasal cannula. Respir Care; 60(6):880-893

Hill NS, Preston IR, Roberts KE (2015) Inhaled therapies for pulmonary hypertension. Respir Care; 60(6):794-805

Hooft CSV (2005) Inappropriate drug prescribing in older adults: the updated 2002 Beers criteria – a population-based cohort study. Br J Clin Pharmacol, 60, 2, 137–144
• 20% of ambulatory older adults receive at least one inappropriate drug prescription per year in Europe

Ingebrigtsen T, Marott JL, Nordestgaard BG et al (2015) Statin use and exacerbations in individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease Thorax;70:33-40. doi:10.1136/thoraxjnl-2014-205795
• statins reduce the risk of exacerbations in COPD patients with coexisting cardiovascular disease

Jahedi L (2017) Inhaler technique in asthma: how does it relate to patients' preferences and attitudes toward their inhalers. J Aerosol Med Pulm Drug Deliv; 30(1):42-52

Jara M, Wentworth C, Lanes S (2012) A new user cohort study comparing the safety of long-acting inhaled bronchodilators in COPD. BMJ Open, 2(3): e000841. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2012-000841

Kardia E, Yusoff NM, Zakaria Z et al (2014) Aerosol-based delivery of fibroblast cells for treatment of lung diseases. J Aerosol Med Pulm Drug Deliv; 27(1):30-34

Kassab S, Sulaiman SAS, Aziz NA (2007) Antimicrobial dose in obese patient. Malays J Med Sci, 14(s7): 1.
• obesity affects drug distribution and elimination by reducing blood flow rates and increasing renal clearance

Kaur G, Phillips CL, Wong K et al (2016) Timing of administration: for commonly-prescribed medicines in Australia. Pharmaceutics; 8(2):13. doi: 10.3390/pharmaceutics8020013.

Kerwin EM (2013) Indacaterol 75 µg once daily for the treatment of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a North American perspective. Ther Adv Respir Dis, 7, 25-37. doi:10.1177/1753465812470018

Knibbe CA, Brill MJ, van Rongen A et al (2015) Drug disposition in obesity: toward evidence-based dosing. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol; 55:149-67. doi: 10.1146/annurev-pharmtox-010814-124354

Kohberg C, Andersen CU, Bendstrup E (2016) Opioids: an unexplored option for treatment of dyspnea in IPF. Eur Clin Respir J; 10(3):30629. doi: 10.3402/ecrj.v3.30629

Korhonen K (1999) Lung function in school-aged asthmatic children with inhaled cromoglycate, nedocromil and steroid therapy. Eur Resp J,13, 82-6
• 70% of children can be treated with chromones and avoid steroids

Kuehn BM (2014) Excessive antibiotic prescribing for sore throat and acute bronchitis remains common. JAMA Int Med; 310(20):2135-2136. doi:10.1001/jama.2013.281452

Lam J, Gomes T, Juurlink DN et al (2013) Hospitalization for hemorrhage among warfarin recipients prescribed amiodarone. Am J Cardiol; 112(3):420-423

Lareau SC, Hodder R (2011) Teaching inhaler use in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. J Am Acad Nurse Pract, 24, 2, 113-20. doi: 10.1111/j.1745-7599.2011.00681.x.

Laube BL, Janssens HM, de Johng FHC et al (2011) What the pulmonary specialist should know about the new inhalation therapies. European Respiratory Journal, 37, 6, 1308-3

Lee TA, Weiss KB (2005) Fracture risk associated with inhaled corticosteroid use in COPD. Am J Respir Crit Care Med, 169, 855-9
• inhaled steroids in high doses increase fracture risk

Lee KK (2013) Effectiveness and safety of spironolactone for systolic heart failure. Am J Cardiol; 112(9):1427-1432

Levy ML, Dekhuijzen PNR, Barnes PJ et al (2016) Inhaler technique: facts and fantasies. A view from the Aerosol Drug Management Improvement Team (ADMIT). NPJ Primary Care Respir Med; 26:16017. doi: 10.1038/npjpcrm.2016.17.

Lin HL, Harwood RJ, Fink JB et al (2015) In vitro comparison of aerosol delivery using different face masks and flow rates with a high-flow humidity system. Respir Care; 60(9):1215-1219

MacKenzie AM (2014) Journal club: Gabapentin for refractory chronic cough. Thorax; 69(1):100. doi:10.1136/thoraxjnl-2013-203450

Marcum ZA, Wirtz HS, Pettinger M et al (2016) Anticholinergic medication use and falls in postmenopausal women: findings from the women's health initiative cohort study. BMC Geriatr; 16(1):76. doi: 10.1186/s12877-016-0251-0
• anticholinergics increase risk of falls in older women

Mathioudakis AG, Kanavidis P, Chatzimavridou-Grigoriadou V et al (2014) Tiotropium handihaler improves the survival of patients with COPD: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Aerosol Med Pulm Drug Deliv; 27(1):43-50

McDonald VM (2013) Managing older patients with coexistent asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. Drugs Aging; 30(1):1-17

Macleod M (2014) Some salt with your statin, professor? PLoS Biol; 12(1):e1001768. doi: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1001768
• bias in trials sponsored by the pharmaceutical industry

Millar A, Hughes C, Passmore A et al (2014) Intermediate care: the role of medicines management. Drugs Aging; 31(1):21-31

Milos V et al (2013). Improving the quality of pharmacotherapy in elderly primary care patients through medication reviews: a randomised controlled study. Drugs Aging; 30(4):235-46

Montani D, Chaumais MC, Guignabert C et al (2014) Targeted therapies in pulmonary arterial hypertension. Pharmacol Ther; 141(2):172-91. doi: 10.1016/j.pharmthera.2013.10.002

Mulhem E, Lick D, Varughese J et al (2013) Adherence to medications after hospital discharge in the elderly. Int J Family Med: Article ID 901845. doi: 10.1155/2013/901845

Myers TR (2015) Year in Review 2014: Aerosol delivery devices. Respir Care; 60(8):1190-1196

Needham M, Mastaglia FL (2014) Statin myotoxicity: A review of genetic susceptibility factors. Neuromuscul Disord; 24(1):4-15. doi: 10.1016/j.nmd.2013.09.011

Nguyen C, MacEntee M, Mintzes B et al (2014) Information for physicians and pharmacists about drugs that might cause dry mouth: a study of monographs and published literature. Drugs Aging; 31(1): 55-65

Nichols GA, Wang F, Pedula KL (2010) Comparison of evidence-based versus non–evidence-based pharmacotherapy on the risk of cardiovascular hospitalization and all-cause mortality among patients with established cardiovascular Disease. Am J Cardiol, 105, 6, 786-91
• mortality in people with cvd is reduced by aspirin/antiplatelets, statins, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers, or β blockers

Norman P (2014) New dual-acting bronchodilator treatments for COPD, muscarinic antagonists and β2 agonists in combination or combined into a single molecule. Expert Opin Investig Drugs; 22(12):1569-80. doi: 10.1517/13543784.2013.833182

O'Connor CM (2017) Developing breakthrough drugs for heart failure: lessons learned from the cystic fibrosis experience. JACC Heart Fail; 5(1):71-72. doi: 10.1016/j.jchf.2016.11.008

Ohbayashi H, Setoguchi Y, Fukuchi Y et al (2016) Pharmacological effects of lysozyme on COPD and bronchial asthma with sputum: A randomized, placebo-controlled, small cohort, cross-over study. Pulm Pharmacol Ther; 37:73-80. doi: 10.1016/j.pupt.2016.03.001

Olivieri D, Chetta A (2014) Therapeutic perspectives in vascular remodeling in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Chem Immunol Allergy; 99:216-2

Ongley D, Hayward A, Allan C (2014) Severe respiratory depression associated with perioperative opioid-sparing gabapentin use. Anaesth Intensive Care; 42(1):136-7
• respiratory depression can be caused by gabapentin

Othman N, Vitry A, Roughead EE (2009) Quality of pharmaceutical advertisements in medical journals: a systematic review. July 22. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0006350
• pharmaceutical advertising in medical journals often provides poor quality information, with effects on doctors' prescribing behaviour possibly greatest in developing countries and post-Soviet Russia

Pal S, Khan K, China SP et al (2016) Theophylline, a methylxanthine drug induces osteopenia and alters calciotropic hormones, and prophylactic vitamin D treatment protects against these changes in rats. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol; 295:12-25. doi: 10.1016/j.taap.2016.02.002

Peiffer C (2011) Morphine-induced relief of dyspnea: what are the mechanisms? Am J Respir Crit Care Med, 184(8):867-9.

Pitance L, Vecellio L, Delval G et al (2013) Aerosol delivery through tracheostomy tubes: an in vitro study. J Aerosol Med Pulm Drug Deliv, 26(2): 76-83. doi:10.1089/jamp.2011.0962

Pleasants RA, Wang T, Gao J et al (2016) Inhaled Umeclidinium in COPD patients: a review and meta-analysis. Drugs; 76(3):343-61. doi: 10.1007/s40265-015-0532-5

Quon BS, Goss CH, Ramsey BW (2014) Inhaled antibiotics for lower airway infections. Ann Am Thorac Soc; 11(3):425-34. doi: 10.1513/AnnalsATS.201311-395FR

Rabe KF (2010) Anticholinergic drugs for the treatment of COPD are safe… are they? Chest, 137, 1-3

Rello J, Calandra T, De Backer D et al (2016) Advances in antibiotic therapy in the critically ill. Crit Care; 20:133. doi: 10.1186/s13054-016-1285-6

Renish R. Delvadia, P. Worth L et al (2013) In vitro tests for aerosol deposition. iii: effect of inhaler insertion angle on aerosol deposition. J Aerosol Med Pulm Drug Deliv, 26(3):145-156. doi:10.1089/jamp.2012.0989

Restrepo MI, Keyt H, Reyes LF (2015) Aerosolized Antibiotics. Respir Care; 60(6):762-773

Rémi C, Rémi J, Bausewein C (2016) Pharmacological management of bronchorrhea in malignant disease: a systematic literature review. J Pain Symptom Manage; 51(5):916-25. doi: 10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2015.12.335

Rubin BK (2015) Aerosol medications for treatment of mucus clearance disorders. Respir Care; 60(6):825-832

Ranzani OT (2012) Association between systemic corticosteroids and outcomes of intensive care unit–acquired pneumonia. Crit Care Med, 40, 9, 2552–2561. doi: 10.1097/CCM.0b013e318259203d

Sandhu MS, Lee KZ, Gonzalez-Rothi EJ et al (2013) Repeated intravenous doxapram induces phrenic motor facilitation. Exp Neurol; 250:108-15. doi: 10.1016/j.expneurol.2013.08.016

Santus P, Radovanovic D, Di Marco S et al (2015) Effect of indacaterol on lung deflation improves cardiac performance in hyperinflated COPD patients: an interventional, randomized, double-blind clinical trial. Internat J COPD; 10:1917-1923. doi: 10.2147/COPD.S91684.
• indacaterol can reduce SOB and improve right heart performance in COPD

Sathe NA, Krishnaswami S Andrews J et al (2015) Pharmacologic agents that promote airway clearance in hospitalized subjects: a systematic review. Respir Care; 60(7):1061-1070

Satya K (2004) Prescription of oxygen therapy and nebuliser driving gas. Eur Respir J, 24: Suppl. 48, 229s
• driving gas should be prescribed

Savage SR, Kirsh KL, Passik SD (2008) Challenges in using opioids to treat pain in persons with substance use disorders. Addict Sci Clin Pract, 4, 2, 4–25

Scherphof CS, van den Eijnden RJ, Engels RC et al (2014) Short-term efficacy of nicotine replacement therapy for smoking cessation in adolescents: A randomized controlled trial.
J Subst Abuse Treat; 46(2):120-7. doi: 10.1016/j.jsat.2013.08.008

Schmitz A, Schulz C, Friebel U et al (2016) Patient-controlled therapy of breathlessness in palliative care: a new therapeutic concept for opioid administration? J Pain Symptom Manage; 51(3):581-8. doi: 10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2015.10.015

Setoguchi S, Higgins JM, Mogun H (2010) Propranolol and the risk of hospitalized myopathy: translating chemical genomics findings into population-level hypotheses. Am Heart J, 159, 3, 428-433
• propranolol may be associated with a 45% increased risk of myopathy in the elderly.

Shen L et al (2013) Role of diuretics, β-blockers, and statins in increasing the risk of diabetes in patients with impaired glucose tolerance. BMJ; 347:f6745

Sibila O, Laserna E, Mortensen EM et al (2013) Effects of inhaled corticosteroids on pneumonia severity and antimicrobial resistance. Respir Care, 58(9):1489-94
• for people with pneumonia, prior steroid use is associated with higher severity of illness

Singanayagam A, Chalmers JD, Hill AT (2010) Inhaled corticosteroids and risk of pneumonia: evidence for and against the proposed association. QJM, 103, 6, 379–85
• pro and con arguments for the association between inhaled steroids and increased pneumonia risk

Singh S (2008) Inhaled anticholinergics and risk of major adverse cardiovascular events in patients with COPD. J Am Med Ass, 300, 12, 1439-50
• inhaled anticholinergics are associated with a significantly increased risk of cardiovascular death, MI, or stroke among patients with COPD.

Singh S, Loke YK, Enright PL, Furberg CT (2011) Mortality associated with tiotropium mist inhaler in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. BMJ, 342, d3215
• meta-analysis indicating a 52% increased risk of mortality associated with tiotropium via Respimat inhaler in people with COPD

Sitte T (2008) Intranasal fentanyl for episodic breathlessness. J Pain Symptom Manage, 36, 6, e3-36.

Smallwood N, Le B, Currow D et al (2015) Management of refractory breathlessness with morphine in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Intern Med J; 45(9):898-904. doi: 10.1111/imj.12857

Solé A, Girón RM (2016) Inhaled medication and inhalation devices for lung disease. Rev Esp Quimioter; 28 Suppl 1:19-24

Spina D (2014) Current and novel bronchodilators in respiratory disease. Curr Opin Pulm Med; 20(1):73-86

Stass H (2017) Ciprofloxacin dry powder for inhalation in patients with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and in healthy volunteers. J Aerosol Med Pulm Drug Deliv; 30(1):53-63

Stephen D, Vatsa M, Rakesh Lodha R et al (2015) A randomized controlled trial of 2 inhalation methods when using a pressurized metered dose inhaler with valved holding chamber. Respir Care; 60(12):1743-1748

Suissa S, Dell'Aniello S, Ernst P (2017) Long-acting bronchodilator initiation in COPD and the risk of adverse cardiopulmonary events: a population-based comparative safety study. Chest; 151(1):60-67. doi:10.1016/j.chest.2016.08.001.

Takakuwa O, Oguri T, Maeno K et al (2015) Long-term use of a once-a-day fentanyl citrate transdermal patch in lung cancer patients. Oncol Letters; 9(5):2105-2108. doi: 10.3892/ol.2015.3022.

Thakkar PJ, Madan P, Lin S (2014) Transdermal delivery of diclofenac using water-in-oil microemulsion: formulation and mechanistic approach of drug skin permeation. Pharm Dev Technol; 19(3):373-84. doi: 10.3109/10837450.2013.788658

Thames CH, Pruden A, James RE et al (2012) Excretion of antibiotic resistance genes by dairy calves fed milk replacers with varying doses of antibiotics. Front Microbiol, 3, 139

Truesdale K (2013) Nebulized lidocaine in the treatment of intractable cough. Am J Hospice Palliat Med; 30(6):587-589

Vahedi HSM, Mahshidfar B, Rabiee H et al (2013) The adjunctive effect of nebulized furosemide in COPD exacerbation: a randomized controlled clinical trial. Respir Care; 58(11):1873-7
• inhaled furosemide may ameliorate SOB in people with acute COPD

Vigário A, Mendonça C (2016) Amiodarone induced organizing pneumonia: a masquerader of community acquired pneumonia. J Pulm Respir Med; 6:319. doi:10.4172/2161-105X.1000319
• amiodarone causes adverse effects in 75% of patients, including pulmonary toxicity in 5-10% of patients

Weers J (2015) Inhaled antimicrobial therapy - barriers to effective treatment. Adv Drug Deliv Rev; 85:24-43. doi: 10.1016/j.addr.2014.08.013

Weinstein RS (2011) Glucocorticoid-induced bone disease. N Engl J Med, 365, 62-70

Wile D (2016) Diuretics: a review. Ann Clin Biochem; 49(Pt 5):419-31. doi: 10.1258/acb.2011.011281

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CFA = cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis
COPD = chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
CVD = cardiovascular disease
JAMA = Journal of the American Medical Association
MI = myocardial infarction
RCT = randomised controlled trial
SOB = shortness of breath
QoL = quality of life
tds = three times a day

Information on inhalers for patients: