Specific needs of elderly people
NICE GUIDELINE (2015) Transition between inpatient hospital settings and community or care home settings for adults with social care needs (NG27).
www.nice.org.uk/guidance/ng27

NICE GUIDELINE (2010) Delirium: prevention, diagnosis and management, NICE guidance (CG103)
https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/cg103

NICE (2016) Multimorbidity: clinical assessment and management [NG56]


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• pain has been identified in 50% of people with dementia

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• with ageing, BP is less stable on position change

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• some cardiac drugs (furosamide, nitrates and calcium channel blockers) are associated with reduced grip strength

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• weaning outcome can be predicted by the Integrative Weaning Index

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• cardiac rehabilitation in the oldest patients after surgery or a cardiac event brings improvement in all domains of physical performance

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• exercise reduces agitation

Bastiaanse LP, Hilgenkamp TIM, Echteld MA et al (2012) Prevalence and associated factors of sarcopenia in older adults with intellectual disabilities. Res Developmental Disabilities, 33, 6, 2004–2012

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• pain in care homes has been identified in 66% of residents and 80% of residents with dementia

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Braude P, Partridge JSL, Hardwick J et al (2016) Geriatricians in perioperative medicine: developing subspecialty training. Br J Anaesth; 116(1):4-6. doi: 10.1093/bja/aev403

Brogi D, Espinosa E, Lilli A et al (2016) Nutrition and malnutrition in the intensive coronary care unit. Fundamentals for the clinical cardiologist. G Ital Cardiol (Rome); 17(4):259-67. doi: 10.1714/2214.23898
• hospital malnutrition can reach 50% in patients aged more than 75 years old

Brown R, Howard R, Candy B et al (2015) Opioids for agitation in dementia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev; 14;5:CD009705. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD009705.pub2

Buchman AS, Wilson RS, Yu L et al 2014) Total daily activity declines more rapidly with increasing age in older adults. Arch Geront Geriatr; 58(1):74-79

Budnitz DS, Lovegrove MC, Shehab N (2011) Emergency hospitalizations for adverse drug events in older Americans. N Engl J Med, 365, 2002-12
• adverse side effects are a significant preventable cause of hospitalization in older adults

Buswell M, Lumbard P, Prothero L et al (2016) Unplanned, urgent and emergency care: what are the roles that EMS plays in providing for older people with dementia? An integrative review of policy, professional recommendations and evidence. Emerg Med J; 33:61-70. doi:10.1136/emermed-2014-203941

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• depression increases the risk of falls

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• smokers require extra postop analgesia

Christakis NA, Allison PD (2006) Mortality after the hospitalization of a spouse. N Engl J Med; 354:719–30

Closs SJ (2004) Cognitive status and analgesic provision in nursing home residents. Br J Gen Pract, 54, 919-21
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• inadeguate analgesia is given to cognitively-impaired patients

Cowan DT, Roberts JD (2003) The need for effective assessment and management of pain among older people in care homes. Rev Clin Gerontol, 13, 4, 335-41
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Cudennec T, Brissonière OG, Coscas R et al (2013) Delirium in elderly vascular surgery patients. Ann Vasc Surg; 28(3):781-6. doi: 10.1016/j.avsg.2013.08.013

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De Souza e Silva CG, Franklin BA, Forman DE et al (2016) Influence of age in estimating maximal oxygen uptake. J Geriatr Cardiol; 13(2):126-131. doi: 10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2016.02.010.
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Dongen EJI, Steijns JM et al (2016) Translation of a tailored nutrition and resistance exercise intervention for elderly people to a real-life setting. BMC Geriatrics; 17:25. doi: 10.1186/s12877-017-0413-8

Ebihara S, Sekiya H, Miyagi M et al (2016) Dysphagia, dystussia, and aspiration pneumonia in elderly people. J Thorac Dis; 8(3):632-9. doi: 10.21037/jtd.2016.02.60 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4805832/

Ewan V, Sails A, Walls A et al (2013) Hospital acquired pneumonia, dental plaque and oral colonisation with respiratory pathogens: untangling complex relationships. Age Ageing, 42 (suppl 2): ii30. doi: 10.1093/ageing/aft026
• importance of oral hygiene in the elderly

Falzone E (2013) Postoperative analgesia in elderly patients. Drugs Aging; 30(2):81-90

Fassier T, Valour E, Colin C et al (2016) Who am i to decide whether this person is to die today? physicians' life-or-death decisions for elderly critically ill patients at the emergency department-icu interface: a qualitative study. Ann Emerg Med; 68(1):28-39.e3. doi: 10.1016/j.annemergmed.2015.09.030

Freudenberger P, Petrovic K, Sen A (2016) Fitness and cognition in the elderly: The Austrian Stroke Prevention Study. Neurology; 86(5):418-24. doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000002329

Galloway RV, Karmarkar AM, Graham JE et al (2016) Hospital readmission following discharge from inpatient rehabilitation for older adults with debility. Phys Ther; 96(2):241-251; doi: 10.2522/ptj.20150030

Gobo S et al (2014) Effects of exercise on dual-task ability and balance in older adults: A systematic review. Arch Geront Geriatr; 58(2):177-187

Gomez P, Filippou D, Pais B et al (2016) Breathing and affective picture processing across the adult lifespan. Biol Psychol; 119:101-11. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsycho.2016.07.011

Gschwind YJ, Schoene D, Lord SR et al (2015) The effect of sensor-based exercise at home on functional performance associated with fall risk in older people – a comparison of two exergame interventions. European Review of Aging and Physical Activity;12:11. doi: 10.1186/s11556-015-0156-5.
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• exercise increases cognition, balance, strength and vision, and decreases falls, using ‘exergames’ at home

Guo Y, Sun L, Li L et al (2016) Impact of multicomponent, nonpharmacologic interventions on perioperative cortisol and melatonin levels and postoperative delirium in elderly oral cancer patients. Arch Gerontol Geriatr; 62:112-7. doi: 10.1016/j.archger.2015.10.009

Haas CS, Loik PS, Gay SE (2007) Airway clearance applications in the elderly and in patients with neurologic or neuromuscular compromise. Respir Care, 52, 10,1362–1381
www.rcjournal.com/contents/10.07/10.07.1362.pdf

Higashijima M (2013) Relationship between swallowing dysfunction and decreased respiratory function in dementia patients. J Phys Ther Science, 25(8):941-942

Holloway KL, Williams LJ, Brennan-Olsen SL et al (2016) Anxiety disorders and falls among older adults. J Affect Disord; 205:20-27. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2016.06.052
• anxiety triples the likelihood of falls in elderly men

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Josaleen D et al (2013) Mobilization of ventilated older adults. J Geriatr Phys Ther; 36(4):162-168. doi: 10.1519/JPT.0b013e31828836e7
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Koeneman MA, Chorus A, Hopman-Rock M (2017) A novel method to promote physical activity among older adults in residential care: an exploratory field study on implicit social norms. BMC Geriatrics; 17:8

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Kvasnovsky CL, Adams K, Sideris M et al (2016) Elderly patients have more infectious complications following laparoscopic colorectal cancer surgery. Colorectal Dis; 18(1):94-100. doi: 10.1111/codi.13109

Killin LOJ, Starr JM, Shiue IJ et al (2016) Environmental risk factors for dementia: a systematic review. BMC Geriatrics; 16:175. doi: 10.1186/s12877-016-0342-y
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• approximately a third of Alzheimer’s dementia cases could be attributed to potentially modifiable risk factors: diabetes and obesity, smoking, hypertension, depression, cognitive inactivity, and low educational attainment

Kirk-Sanchez NJ, McGough EL (2014) Physical exercise and cognitive performance in the elderly: current perspectives. Clin Intervent Aging; 9:51-6

Lalley PM (2013) The aging respiratory system — pulmonary structure, function and neural control. Resp Physiol Neurobiol; 187(3):199-210

Liao L-Y, Chen K-M, Chung W-S et al (2016) Efficacy of a respiratory rehabilitation exercise training package in hospitalized elderly patients with acute exacerbation of COPD: a randomized control trial. Internat J Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Dis; 10:1703-1709. doi:10.2147/COPD.S90673
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Lowery EM, Brubaker AL, Kuhlmann E et al (2013) The aging lung. Clin Intervent Aging; 8:1489-1496

Manning J, Cefalu JE (2017) Infection in the critically ill older adult. Crit Care Nurs Clin; 29(1):25–35

Marshall KA, Burson R, Gall K et al (2016) Hospital admissions for malnutrition and dehydration in patients with dementia. Home Healthc Now; 34(1):32-7. doi: 10.1097/NHH.0000000000000327

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• the heaviest burden of inadequate pain management is borne by the weakest, including elders and people with dementia
• elderly patients are more likely to fear addiction with analgesia
• elderly patients are often reluctant to ‘bother the busy nurses’
• obstacles to adequate treatment in Western countries include racial and age discrimination

Muniz de Souza H, Rocha T, Campos SL et al (2016) Acute effects of different inspiratory efforts on ventilatory pattern and chest wall compartmental distribution in elderly women. Respir Physiol Neurobiol; 227:27-33. doi: 10.1016/j.resp.2016.02.004
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Nick N, Petramfar P, Ghodsbin F et al (2016) The effect of yoga on balance and fear of falling in older adults. PM R. 2016 Feb;8(2):145-51. doi: 10.1016/j.pmrj.2015.06.442

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• a single session of aerobic exercise acutely reduces BP in very old adults - hypertension may be an important nonpharmacological strategy to control hypertension in this age group

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• undertreatment of lung cancer in the elderly is common, resulting in large age-related differences in management and survival

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Rizk P, Morris W, Oladeji P et al (2016) Review of postoperative delirium in geriatric patients undergoing hip surgery. Geriatr Orthop Surg Rehabil; 7(2):100-5. doi: 10.1177/2151458516641162

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• aging and cardiovascular diseases are both associated with a chronic state of oxidative stress and inflammation

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• people aged >80 years are the fastest growing segment of the population

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Taffet GE et al (2013) Considerations for managing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in the elderly. Clin Intervent Aging; 9:23-30. doi.org/10.2147/CIA.S52999

Thiebaud RS, Fahs CA, Rossow LM et al (2016) Effects of age on arterial stiffness and central blood pressure after an acute bout of resistance exercise. Eur J Appl Physiol; 116(1):39-48. doi: 10.1007/s00421-015-3242-5

Tyler K, Stevenson D (2016) Respiratory emergencies in geriatric patients. Emerg Med Clin North Am; 34(1):39-49. doi: 10.1016/j.emc.2015.08.003

Verhofstede R, Smets T, Cohen J et al (2016) Implementing the care programme for the last days of life in an acute geriatric hospital ward: a phase 2 mixed method study. BMC Palliative Care; 15:27. doi: 10.1186/s12904-016-0102-y.
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• at the end of life, patients tend to receive undesired and burdensome interventions and at the same time are under-assessed and undertreated for symptoms such as pain

Watanabe JH (2016) Medication use, falls, and fall-related worry in older adults in the United States. Consult Pharm; 31(7):385-93. doi: 10.4140/TCP.n.2016.385

Wei GX, Li YF, Yue XL et al (2016) Tai Chi Chuan modulates heart rate variability during abdominal breathing in elderly adults. Psych J; 5(1):69-77. doi: 10.1002/pchj.105
• Tai Chi induces relaxation by stablising the sympathetic/parasympathetic balance

Wirth A, Wang S, Takefuji M et al (2016) Age-dependent blood pressure elevation is due to increased vascular smooth muscle tone mediated by G-protein signalling. Cardiovasc Res; 109(1):131-40. doi: 10.1093/cvr/cvv249
• increased vascular tone can be a primary factor in the development of hypertension

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• a more in depth assessment should address domains such as functionality, social support, cognition, polypharmacy, nutrition and frailty; this encourages decisions based on functional age rather than chronologic age

Zasadzka E, Kropińska S, Pawlaczyk M et al (2016) Effects of inpatient physical therapy on the functional status of elderly individuals. J Phys Ther Sci; 28(2):426-31. doi: 10.1589/jpts.28.426
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Zhu QO, Tan CSG, Tan HL et al (2016) Orthostatic hypotension: prevalence and associated risk factors among the ambulatory elderly in an Asian population. Singapore Med J; 57(8):444-451. doi: 10.11622/smedj.2016135.
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• the risk of falls is worsened by diuretics