Intensive/Critical care - monitoring, support systems, the patient experience, management of emergencies, follow up programmes
GUIDELINES FOR FAMILY-CENTERED CARE IN THE NEONATAL, PEDIATRIC, AND ADULT ICU. Davidson JE, Aslakson RA, Long AC et al (2017) Crit Care Med; 45(1):103–128. doi: 10.1097/CCM.0000000000002169



WEBSITE for ex-ICU patients:

Abrams D, Brodie D (2016) The clinical management of patients on partial/total extracorporeal support. Curr Opin Crit Care; 22(1):73-9. doi: 10.1097/MCC.0000000000000273

American College of Critical Care Medicine (2013) Clinical practice guidelines for the management of pain, agitation, and delirium in adult patients in the intensive care unit. Crit Care Med, 41, 1, 263-306. doi: 10.1097/CCM.0b013e3182783b72

Aitken LM, burmeister E, McKinley S et al (2015) Physical recovery in intensive care unit survivors: a cohort analysis. Am J Crit Care; 24:24:33-40; doi: 10.4037/ajcc2015870

Akin KE, Khorshid L, Uyar M (2014) Reflexology: its effects on physiological anxiety signs and sedation needs. Holist Nurs Pract; 28(1):6-23. doi: 10.1097/HNP.0000000000000007
• reflexology lessens the need for sedation

Aubron C (2017) Is platelet transfusion associated with hospital-acquired infections in critically ill patients? Crit Care; 21:2.

Azoulay E (2002) Impact of a family information leaflet on effectiveness of information provided to family members of ICU patients. Am J Respir Crit Care Med, 165, 438-42
• beneficial effects of information booklet.

Álvarez EA, Garrido MA, Tobar EA et al (2017) Occupational therapy for delirium management in elderly patients without mechanical ventilation in an intensive care unit: a pilot randomized clinical trial. J Crit Care; 37(2):85-90

Bartlett RH, Deatrick KB (2016) Current and future status of extracorporeal life support for respiratory failure in adults. Curr Opin Crit Care; 22(1):80-5. doi: 10.1097/MCC.0000000000000274

Batt J, Santos CC, Herridge MS (2013) Muscle injury during critical illness. JAMA; 310(15):1569-70

Binks AP, Desjardin S, Riker R (2017) ICU clinicians underestimate breathing discomfort in ventilated subjects. Respir Care; 62(2):150-5

Bissett B, Green M, Marzano V et al (2016) Reliability and utility of the Acute Care Index of Function in intensive care patients: an observational study. Heart Lung; 45(1):10–14

Blot S, Afonso E, Labeau S (2015) Recent advances in multidisciplinary critical care. Am J Crit Care; 24:75-86; doi:10.4037/ajcc2015321

Bo M, Bonetto M, Bottignole G et al (2016) Length of stay in the emergency department and occurrence of delirium in older medical patients. J Am Geriatr Soc; 64(5):1114-9. doi: 10.1111/jgs.14103

Böhmer AB, Just KS, Rolf Lefering R et al (2014) Factors influencing lengths of stay in the intensive care unit for surviving trauma patients: a retrospective analysis of 30,157 cases. Crit Care; 18:R143. doi:10.1186/cc13976
• treatment regimens may prolong length of stay.

Braus N, Campbell TC, Kwekkeboom KL et al (2016) Prospective study of a proactive palliative care rounding intervention in a medical ICU. Int Care Med; 42(1): 54 - 62

Brummel NE, Girard TD (2012) Preventing delirium in the intensive care unit. Crit Care Clin, 29, 1, 51-65.

Cardoso LTC, Grion CMC, Matsuo T (2011) Impact of delayed admission to intensive care units on mortality of critically ill patients: a cohort study. Crit Care, 15, 1, R28-36; doi:10.1186/cc9975

Carr J (2007) Psychological consequences associated with intensive care treatment. Trauma, 9, 95–102

Cartin-Ceba R, Warner D, Hays JT et al (2011) Nicotine replacement therapy in critically ill patients: a prospective observational cohort study. Crit Care Med; 39(7):1635-40

Chlan LL (2016) Engaging critically ill patients in symptom management: thinking outside the box! Am J Crit Care; 25(4):293-300. doi: 10.4037/ajcc2016932

Mattu A (2016) Pulmonary emergencies. Emerg Med Clin; 34(1): xi–xii. doi:
• loss of airway function & compromise of lung function are the most rapid killers in emergency medicine

Smonig R, Wallenhorst T, Bouju P et al (2016) Constipation is independently associated with delirium in critically ill ventilated patients. Int Care Med; 42(1):126–7
• constipation predisposes to delirium

Cypress BS (2016) Understanding uncertainty among critically ill patients in the intensive care unit using Mishel's theory of uncertainty of illness. Dimens Crit Care Nurs; 35(1):42-9. doi: 10.1097/DCC.0000000000000152
• patients are concerned about ‘not knowing what is going to happen’, or ‘if they are progressing or not’, or ‘if they will make it or not’

Damiani E, Adrario E, Girardis M et al (2014) Arterial hyperoxia and mortality in critically ill patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Crit Care, 18 :711
• hyperoxia may be damaging for ICU patients with stroke or traumatic brain injury

Davies H, McKenzie N, Williams TA et al (2016) Challenges during long-term follow-up of ICU patients with and without chronic disease. Aust Crit Care; 29(1):27-34. doi: 10.1016/j.aucc.2015.04.002

Davydow DS (2015) Posttraumatic stress disorder in critical illness survivors: too many questions remain. Crit Care Med; 43(5):1151-2. doi: 10.1097/CCM.0000000000000896
• symptoms of PTSD have been found in 25-44% of patients up to 6 months after discharge, mostly related to frightening experiences in the ICU

Elliott R, McKinley S, Cistulli P et al (2013) Characterisation of sleep in intensive care using 24 hour polysomnography: an observational study. Crit Care, 17, R46. doi:10.1186/cc12565

Elliott R, McKinley S, Fien M et al (2016) Posttraumatic stress symptoms in intensive care patients: an exploration of associated factors. Rehabil Psychol; 61(2):141-50

Field K, Prinjha S, Rowan K (2008) 'One patient amongst many': a qualitative analysis of intensive care unit patients' experiences of transferring to the general ward. Crit Care, 12, R21

Flaatten H (2014) The impact of age in intensive care. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand; 58(1):3–4. doi. 10.1111/aas.12221

Fodor GH, Babik B, Czövek D et al (2016) Fluid replacement and respiratory function: comparison of whole blood with colloid and crystalloid: randomised animal study. Eur J Anaesthesiol; 33:34–41. doi: 10.1097/EJA.0000000000000251

Fowler SJ, Basanta-Sanchez M, Xu Y et al (2015) Surveillance for lower airway pathogens in mechanically ventilated patients by metabolomic analysis of exhaled breath: a case-control study. Thorax; 70:320-325. doi:10.1136/thoraxjnl-2014-206273

Gardner AJ, Griffiths J (2014) Propranolol, post-traumatic stress disorder, and intensive care: incorporating new advances in psychiatry into the ICU. Crit Care, 18:698 doi:10.1186/s13054-014-0698-3

Gonzalez CE (2004) Visiting preferences of patients in the ICU and in a complex care medical unit. Am J Crit Care, 13, 194-8

Granja C (2005) Patients' recollections of experiences in the intensive care unit may affect their quality of life. Crit Care, 9, R96-R109

Griffiths RD et al (2001) Filllng the intensive care memory gap? Int Care Med, 27, 344-6
• interesting editorial on prevention of delusional memories

Gusmao-Flores D et al (2012) The confusion assessment method for the intensive care unit (CAM-ICU) and intensive care delirium screening checklist (ICDSC) for the diagnosis of delirium: a systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical studies. Crit Care; 16:R115

Hartog CS (2014) Are written advance directives helpful to guide end-of-life therapy in the intensive care unit? A retrospective matched-cohort.J Crit Care; 29(1):128-133

Hill A, Fowler R, Pinto R et al (2016) Long-term outcomes and healthcare utilization following critical illness – a population-based study. Crit Care; 20:76. doi: 10.1186/s13054-016-1248-y
• high re-admission rate after ICU stay

Hopkins RO, Suchyta MR, Beene K et al (2016) Critical illness acquired brain injury: neuroimaging and implications for rehabilitation. Rehabil Psychol; 61(2):151-64. doi: 10.1037/rep0000088
• imaging studies in ICU survivors indicate cortical and subcortical lesions, and white matter atrophy, which persist months to years after ICU discharge and are associated with cognitive impairments

Hosein F, Roberts DJ, Turin T et al (2014) A meta-analysis to derive literature-based benchmarks for readmission and hospital mortality after patient discharge from intensive care. Crit Care, 18 :2558
• for every 100 patients discharged alive from the ICU, 4-6 will be readmitted to ICU and 3-7 will die prior to hospital discharge

Hsieh E et al (2014) Management of autism in the adult intensive care unit. J Int Care Med; 29(1):47-52,

Hwang CH, Choi KH, Ko YS et al (2007) Pre-emptive swallowing stimulation in long-term intubated patients. Clinical Rehabilitation, 21, 41-46.
• neck and jaw exercises may help prevent throat damage resulting from intubation

Jablonski RS (1994) The experience of being mechanically ventilated. Qual Health Res. 4, 186-207
• essential reading for all involved with ICU patients

Jackson JC, Jutte JE, Hunter CH et al (2016) Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after critical illness: a conceptual review of distinct clinical issues and their implications. Rehabil Psychol; 61(2):132-40. doi: 10.1037/rep0000085

Jia L, Wang H, Gao Y et al (2016) High incidence of adverse events during intra-hospital transport of critically ill patients and new related risk factors: a prospective, multicenter study in China. Critical Care; 20:12

Jones C, Bäckman C, Griffiths RD (2012) Intensive care diaries and relatives’ symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder after critical illness: a pilot study Am J Crit Care, 21,172-176
• psychologic recovery is helped by the use of a diary, with contributions from staff and relatives, which helps link memories and reality

Karlsson V, Forsberg A (2008) Health is yearning — experiences of being conscious during ventilator treatment in a critical care unit. Int Crit Care Nurs, 24, 1, 41-50Kreimeier U (2000) Pathophysiology of fluid imbalance. Crit.Care, 4(Suppl 2):S3-S7

Karnatovskaia LV, Johnson MM, Benzo RP et al (2015) The spectrum of psychocognitive morbidity in the critically ill: a review of the literature and call for improvement. J Crit Care; 30(1):130-7. doi: 10.1016/j.jcrc.2014.09.024

Knutsson S, Bergbom I (2016) Children's thoughts and feelings related to visiting critically ill relatives in an adult ICU: a qualitative study. Int Crit Care Nurs; 32:33–41
• children usually benefit from visiting, especially if they can be involved in some way

Kon AA, Davidson JE, Morrison W et al (2016) Shared decision making in ICUs: an American College of Critical Care Medicine and American Thoracic Society policy statement. Crit Care Med; 44(1):188-201. doi: 10.1097/CCM.0000000000001396

Koszalinski RS, Tappen RM, Hickman C et al (2012) Communication needs of critical care patients who are voiceless. Comput Inform Nurs; 34(8):339-44. doi: 10.1097/CIN.0000000000000266

Krupp A, Balas MC (2016) Application of clinical practice guidelines for pain, agitation, and delirium. Crit Care Nurs Clin North Am; 28(2):241-52. doi: 10.1016/j.cnc.2016.02.001

Lawrence M (1995) The unconscious experience. Am.J.Crit.Care, 4, 227-32.
• patients recollections of how much they remember when ‘unconscious’

Leach RM, Treacher DF (2002) The pulmonary physician in critical care: oxygen delivery and consumption in the critically ill. Thorax, 57, 170-7
• how to disentangle all those oxygen delivery/consumption knots

Le Guen M (2014) Earplugs and eye masks vs routine care prevent sleep impairment in post-anaesthesia care unit: a randomized study. Br J Anaesth; 112(1):89-95

Levy MM et al (2008) Association between critical care physician management and patient mortality in the ICU. Ann Int Med, 148, 801-8
• patients in ICUs staffed by non-ICU physicians were subject to less procedures and showed lower mortality that those staffed by ICU specialists

Lilly CM (2007) The healing power of listening in the ICU. New Eng J Med, 356, 513-15

Limpawattana P, Panitchote A, Tangvoraphonkchai K et al (2016) Delirium in critical care: a study of incidence, prevalence, and associated factors in the tertiary care hospital of older Thai adults. Aging Ment Health; 20(1):74-80. doi: 10.1080/13607863.2015.1035695

Lyngaa T, Christiansen F, Nielsen H et al (2015) Intensive care at the end of life in patients dying due to non-cancer chronic diseases versus cancer: a nationwide study in Denmark. Crit Care;19:413. doi: 10.1186/s13054-015-1124-1

Marini AL, Khan R, Mundekkadan S (2016) Multifaceted bundle interventions shown effective in reducing VAP rates in our multidisciplinary ICUs. BMJ Qual Improv Rep. Apr 4;5(1). pii: u205566.w2278. doi: 10.1136/bmjquality.u205566.w2278

Matthews EE (2012) Sleep disturbances and fatigue in critically ill patients. AACN Adv Crit Care, 22, 3, 204–224. doi: 10.1097/NCI.0b013e31822052cb

Mental Capacity Act 2005 Guidance for Critical Care. Intensive Care Society, London

Miles ETC (2017) Critical incidents: the respiratory system. Anaesth Int Care Med; 18(1):4–9

Munro CL, Savel RH (2013) Communicating and connecting with patients and their families. Am J Crit Care, 22, 1, 4-6

Needham DM, Colantuoni E, Dinglas VD et al (2016) Rosuvastatin versus placebo for delirium in intensive care and subsequent cognitive impairment in patients with sepsis-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome: an ancillary study to a randomised controlled trial. Lancet Respir Med; 4(3): 203–212
• most patients have delirium, with around a third of survivors having cognitive impairment over 1 year of follow-up

Ntoumenopoulos G, Glickman Y (2012) Computerised lung sound monitoring to assess effectiveness of chest physiotherapy and secretion removal: a feasibility study. Physiotherapy; 98(3):250-5. doi: 10.1016/

Oczkowski S, Chung H, Hanvey L et al (2016) Communication tools for end-of-life decision-making in the intensive care unit: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Crit Care; 20:97

Oldham L, Hochang B, Desan PH et al (2016) Circadian rhythm disruption in the critically ill: an opportunity for improving outcomes. Crit Care Med; 44(1):207–217. doi: 10.1097/CCM.0000000000001282

Petrinec AB, Daly BJ (2016) Post-traumatic stress symptoms in post-ICU family members: review and methodological challenges. West J Nurs Res; 38(1):57-78. doi: 10.1177/0193945914544176

Pierce JD, Shen Q, Thimmesch A (2016) The ongoing controversy: crystalloids versus colloids. J Infus Nurs; 39(1):40-44
• the type of fluid used for resuscitation does not appear to affect outcome

Pulak LM, Jensen L (2016) Sleep in the Intensive Care Unit: a review. J Intensive Care Med; 31(1):14-23. doi: 10.1177/0885066614538749
• sleep fragmentation increases both morbidity and mortality

Rattray J (2010) Patients' perceptions of and emotional outcome after intensive care: results from a multicentre study. Nurs Crit Care, 15, 2, 86-93

Reinke L et al (2014) Intensive care unit depth of sleep: proof of concept of a simple electroencephalography index in the non-sedated. Crit Care; 18:R66. doi:10.1186/cc13823.
• quality of sleep can be assessed by a ‘depth of sleep index’.

Riess ML (2016) New developments in cardiac arrest management. Adv Anesth; (34)1:29–46
• details of CPR

Rivosecchi RM, Kane-Gill SL, Svec S et al (2016) The implementation of a nonpharmacologic protocol to prevent intensive care delirium. J Crit Care; 31(1):206-11. doi: 10.1016/j.jcrc.2015.09.031
• benefits of music, opening & closing blinds, orientation, cognitive stimulation, and eye/ear care

Rompaey BV, Elseviers MM, Van Drom W et al (2012) The effect of earplugs during the night on the onset of delirium and sleep perception: a randomized controlled trial in intensive care patients. Crit Care; 16:R73
• ear plugs improve sleep and may reduce delirium

Rose L, Adhikari NK, Poon J (2016) Cough augmentation techniques in the critically ill: a canadian national survey. Respir Care; 61(10):1360-8. doi: 10.4187/respcare.04775

Santiago C et al (2014) A survey of the attitudes and perceptions of multidisciplinary team members towards family presence at bedside rounds in the intensive care unit. Int Crit Care Nurs; 30(1):13-21

Schindler AW (2013) ICU personnel have inaccurate perceptions of their patients' experiences. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand, 57:1032–40

Sharshar T, Polito A, Bozza F et al (2016) Statins and brain dysfunction in intensive care. Lancet Respir Med; 4(3):169–170. doi:
• a third of patients suffer neurological consequences

Shekar K, Gregory SD, Fraser JF (2016) Mechanical circulatory support in the new era: an overview. Crit Care; 20:66

Singer M, Brealey D (2011) Another nail in the hammer's coffin? Crit Care, 15:179

Sjöberg F, Svanborg E (2013) How do we know when patients sleep properly or why they do not? Crit Care, 17:145. doi:10.1186/cc12614

Smit I, Harrison L, Letzkus L et al (2016) What factors are associated with the development of pressure ulcers in a medical intensive care unit? Dimens Crit Care Nurs; 35(1):37-41. doi: 10.1097/DCC.0000000000000153

Smith CD, Grami P (2017) Feasibility and effectiveness of a delirium prevention bundle in critically ill patients. Am J Crit Care, 26(1):19-27; doi:10.4037/ajcc2017374
• delirium prevention bundle reduces the odds of delirium by 78%

Schulman D (2016) Shining a light on the problem of circadian phase disruption in the critically ill. Crit Care Med; 44(1):248-249

Stevens RD, Hart N, Herridge MS (2014) Textbook of Post-ICU Medicine: The Legacy of Critical Care. Oxford University Press

Sutt A-L (2017) Patients want to be heard–loud and clear! Crit Care; 21:6

Tainter CR, Levine AR, Quraishi SA et al (2016) Noise levels in surgical ICUs are consistently above recommended standards. Crit Care Med; 44(1):147-152

Townsend P, Webster NR (2000) Why is the patient still hypoxic despite being ventilated? J Roy Coll Surg Edinburgh, 45, 235-40
• excellent explanation of the oxygen cascade, oxygen delivery, oxygen stores

Turner-Cobb JM, Smith PC, Ramchandani P et al (2016) The acute psychobiological impact of the intensive care experience on relatives. Psychol Health Med; 21(1):20-6. doi: 10.1080/13548506.2014.997763

van Beusekom I, Bakhshi-Raiez F, de Keizer N et al (2016) Reported burden on informal caregivers of ICU survivors: a literature review. Critical Care; 20:16

van der Jagt M (2016) Fluid management of the neurological patient: a concise review. Crit Care; 20:126

Van Rompaey B, Van Hoofemail A, van Bogaertemail P et al (2016) 66–74
The patient's perception of a delirium: A qualitative research in a Belgian intensive care unit. Int Crit Care Nurs; 32:66–74. doi:

Vissers RJ, Gibbs MA (2016) Respiratory emergencies. Emerg Med Clin N Am; 34(1):i. doi:
• loss of airway function and compromise of lung function are the most rapid killers in emergency medicine

Wade DM, Howell DC, Weinman JA et al (2012) Investigating risk factors for psychological morbidity three months after intensive care: a prospective cohort study. Crit Care, 16:R19. doi:10.1186/cc11677

Warlan H, Howland L (2015) Posttraumatic stress syndrome associated with stays in the intensive care unit: importance of nurses' involvement. Crit Care Nurse; 35(3):44-52. doi: 10.4037/ccn2015758
• rates of PTSD average 9% to 27%

Welp A, Meier L, Manser T (2016) The interplay between teamwork, clinicians’ emotional exhaustion, and clinician-rated patient safety: a longitudinal study. Crit Care; 20 :110
• reducing clinician emotional exhaustion is an important prerequisite of managing teamwork and patient safety

Wilby KJ et al (2014) Nicotine replacement therapy in the intensive care unit: a systematic review. J Int Care Med; 29(1):22-30

Williams SL (2009) Recovering from the psychological impact of intensive care: how constructing a story helps. Nurs Crit Care, 14, 6, 281–288

Wintermann GB, Weidner K, Strauß B et al (2016) Predictors of posttraumatic stress and quality of life in family members of chronically critically ill patients after intensive care. Ann Intensive Care; 6(1):69. doi: 10.1186/s13613-016-0174-0

Yousefnia-Darzi F, Hasavari F, Khaleghdoost T et al (2016) Effects of thoracic squeezing on airway secretion removal in mechanically ventilated patients. Iranian J Nurs Midwifery Res; 21(3):337-342. doi: 10.4103/1735-9066.180374.

ICU = intensive care unit
IPPV = intermittent positive pressure ventilation
PTSD = post-traumatic stress disorder
SOB = shortness of breath