Intensive Care conditions
SEE ALSO - Acute head injury, ARDS, and Spinal cord lesions

NICE (2016) Sepsis: recognition, diagnosis and early management [NG51]


Acheampong A, Vincent J-L (2015) A positive fluid balance is an independent prognostic factor in patients with sepsis Crit Care; 19:251. doi: 10.1186/s13054-015-0970-1
• persistence of a positive daily fluid balance over time is associated with higher mortality in septic patients.

Allen CJ, Murray CR, Meizoso JP et al (2016) Surveillance and early management of deep vein thrombosis decreases rate of pulmonary embolism in high-risk trauma patients. J Am Coll Surg; 222(1):65-72. doi: 10.1016/j.jamcollsurg.2015.10.014

Andris A (2010) Pancreatitis: understanding the disease and implications for care. AACN Adv Crit Care, 21, 2,195-204
• pathophysiology of pancreatitis, its diagnosis and treatment, associated complications and their management.

Argov Z, Latronico N (2014) Neuromuscular complications in intensive care patients. Handb Clin Neurol; 121:1673-85. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-7020-4088-7.00108-5

Atema JJ et al (2014) Clinical studies on intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome. J Trauma Inj Inf Crit Care; 76(1):234-40. doi: 10.1097/TA.0b013e3182a85f59

Axer H, Grimm A, Pausch C et al (2016) The impairment of small nerve fibers in severe sepsis and septic shock. Crit Care; 20:64. doi: 10.1186/s13054-016-1241-5

Bataille B, Nucci B, Mora M et al (2016) Ultrasound-guided bilateral stellate ganglion blockade to treat digital ischemia in a patient with sepsis: a case report. Can J Anaesth; 63(1):56-60
• stellate ganglion blockade may restore perfusion to the extremities before necrosis sets in

Beckman M, Paul J, Neideen T et al (2016) Role of the open abdomen in critically ill patients. Crit Care Clinics; 32(2):255–264. doi:

Bitker L, Bayle F, Yonis H et al (2016) Prevalence and risk factors of hypotension associated with preload-dependence during intermittent hemodialysis in critically ill patients. Critical Care; 20:44

Bollen TL (2016) Acute pancreatitis: international classification and nomenclature. Clin Radiol; 71(2):121-33. doi: 10.1016/j.crad.2015.09.013

Bouglé A, Rocheteau P, Sharshar T et al (2016) Muscle regeneration after sepsis. Crit Care; 20:131. doi: 10.1186/s13054-016-1308-3

Bugaev N, Breeze JL, Alhazmi M et al (2016) Displacement patterns of blunt rib fractures and their relationship to thoracic coinjuries: minimal displacements count. Am Surg; 82(3):199-206

Byun JH, Kim HY (2013) Factors affecting pneumonia occurring to patients with multiple rib fractures. Korean J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg, 46, 2, 130-4. doi: 10.5090/kjtcs.2013.46.2.130

Calthorpe S, Barber EA, Holland AE et al (2014) An intensive physiotherapy program improves mobility for trauma patients. J Trauma Inj Inf Crit Care; 76(1):101-106

Conway D, Urquhart CS (2017) Airway trauma. Anaesth Int Care Med; 18(4):199–201

Gelinas JP (2016) Beyond the golden hours: caring for septic patients after the initial resuscitation. Clin Chest Med; 37(2):347-65. doi: 10.1016/j.ccm.2016.01.006

Chen L (2016) Don't go chasing waterfalls: excessive fluid resuscitation in severe sepsis and septic shock. Crit Care Nurs Q; 39(1):34-7. doi: 10.1097/CNQ.0000000000000094
• aggressive fluid resuscitation not advisable in sepsis.

Chuang CL (2016) Fluid management in acute kidney injury. Contrib Nephrol; 187:84-93. doi: 10.1159/000442368

Claudio R (2016) Acute kidney injury: from clinical to molecular diagnosis. Crit Care; 20: 201. doi: 10.1186/s13054-016-1373-7

Contou D, Fragnoli C, Córdoba-Izquierdo A et al (2014) Noninvasive ventilation for acute hypercapnic respiratory failure: intubation rate in an experienced unit. Respir Care; 59(1):2045–2052

Davis RA (2012) The big chill: accidental hypothermia. Am J Nurs, 112, 1, 38-46

Dellepiane S, Marengo M, Cantaluppi V (2016) Detrimental cross-talk between sepsis and acute kidney injury: new pathogenic mechanisms, early biomarkers and targeted therapies. Crit Care; 20:61. doi: 10.1186/s13054-016-1219-3

Diehl A (2017) Ischaemic cardiogenic shock. Anaesth Int Care Med; 18(3):122-5
• cardiogenic shock brings 50% mortality

Doi K (2016) Role of kidney injury in sepsis. J Int Care; 4:17. doi: 10.1186/s40560-016-0146-3

Doyle J, Forni LG (2016) Acute kidney injury: short-term and long-term effects Crit Care; 20: 188. doi: 10.1186/s13054-016-1353-y
• acute kidney injury is the most common cause of organ dysfunction in critically ill adults, with a single episode of AKI carrying significant morbidity and mortality.

Drumheller BC, Agarwal A, Mikkelsen ME et al (2016) Risk factors for mortality despite early protocolized resuscitation for severe sepsis and septic shock in the emergency department. J Crit Care; 31(1):13-20. doi: 10.1016/j.jcrc.2015.10.015

Duggal A, Perez P, Golan E et al (2013) The safety and efficacy of noninvasive ventilation in patients with blunt chest trauma: a systematic review. Crit Care, 17:R14. doi:10.1186/cc12821

Dumont T, Francis-Frank L, Chong J et al (2016) Sepsis and septic shock: lingering questions. Crit Care Nurs Q; 39(1):3-13. doi: 10.1097/CNQ.0000000000000091

Dobson GP, Letson HL, Sharma R et al (2015) Mechanisms of early trauma-induced coagulopathy: The clot thickens or not? J Trauma Acute Care Surg; 79(2):301-9. doi: 10.1097/TA.0000000000000729

Doi K (2016) Role of kidney injury in sepsis. J Int Care; 4:17. doi: 10.1186/s40560-016-0146-3

Easby J (2003) Prone ventilation following witnessed pulmonary aspiration. Int Care Med, 29, 12, 2303-6,30,42;journal,34,297;browsepublicationsresults,615,1574

Faubel S, Edelstein CL (2016) Mechanisms and mediators of lung injury after acute kidney injury. Nat Rev Nephrol; 12(1):48-60. doi: 10.1038/nrneph.2015.158

Files DC, Sanchez MA, Morris PE (2015) A conceptual framework: the early and late phases of skeletal muscle dysfunction in the acute respiratory distress syndrome. Crit Care; 19:266. doi: 10.1186/s13054-015-0979-5

Friedrich O, Reid MB, Van den Berghe G et al (2015) The sick and the weak: neuropathies/myopathies in the critically ill. Physiol Rev; 95(3):1025-109. doi: 10.1152/physrev.00028.2014
• early mobilization helps prevent and treat ICU weakness

Forgacs PB, Fridman EA, Goldfine AM et al (2016) Isolation syndrome after cardiac arrest and therapeutic hypothermia. Frontiers in Neuroscience; 10:259. doi: 10.3389/fnins.2016.00259
• highly-preserved anterior cortico-thalamic integrity can co-exist with conscious awareness in locked-in syndrome

Foster KN, Caruso DM (2016) Burn Resuscitation. Crit Care Clin; 32(4):i. doi:

Gacouin A, Jouneau S, Letheulle J et al (2015) Trends in prevalence and prognosis in subjects with acute chronic respiratory failure treated with noninvasive and/or invasive ventilation. Respir Care; 60(2):210-218

Gando S (2015) Hemostasis and thrombosis in trauma patients. Semin Thromb Hemost; 41(1):26-34. doi: 10.1055/s-0034-1398378

Gelinas JP, Walley KR (2016) Beyond the golden hours: caring for septic patients after the initial resuscitation. Clin Chest Med; 37(2):347-65. doi: 10.1016/j.ccm.2016.01.006

Gille J, Bauer N, Malcharek MJ et al (2016) Reducing the indication for ventilatory support in the severely burned patient: results of a new protocol approach at a regional burn center. J Burn Care Res; 37(3):e205-12. doi: 10.1097/BCR.0000000000000238

Goodwin M, Ito K, Gupta AH et al (2016) Protocolized care for early shock resuscitation. Curr Opin Crit Care; 22(5):416-423

Gupta D, Mullins R (2013) Guillain–Barre´ syndrome patient's satisfaction with physiotherapy: A two-part observational study. Physiother Theory Pract, 29, 4, 301–308.

Head LW (2016) Evolution of sepsis management: from early goal-directed therapy to personalized care. Adv Surg; 50(1):221-234

Hermans G (2015) Clinical review: intensive care unit acquired weakness. Crit Care; 19:274. doi: 10.1186/s13054-015-0993-7

Hoffmann C, Bouix J, Poyat C et al (2016) Severe neurologic impairment and uncommon magnetic resonance imaging findings after carbon monoxide poisoning. Am J Emerg Med; 34(1): 119.e1-119.e2. doi: 10.1016/j.ajem.2015.05.034
• carbon monoxide is the most common cause of fatal poisoning worldwide and has 200 times greater affinity for haemoglobin than oxygen, leading sometimes to brain damage

Holley AD, Reade MC (2013) The 'procoagulopathy' of trauma: too much, too late? Curr Opin Crit Care; 19(6):578-86

Houwink A, Rijkenberg S, Bosman R et al (2016) The association between lactate, mean arterial pressure, central venous oxygen saturation and peripheral temperature and mortality in severe sepsis: a retrospective cohort analysis. Crit Care; 20:56

Huet O, Chin-Dusting JP (2014) Septic shock: desperately seeking treatment. Clin Sci (Lond); 126(1):31-9. doi: 10.1042/CS20120668

Hussein QA, Anaya DA (2013) Necrotizing soft tissue infections. Crit Care Clinics; 29(4):795-806]

Husain-Syed F, Slutsky AS, Ronco C (2016) Lung-kidney cross-talk in the critically ill patient. Am J Respir Crit Care Med; 194(4):402-14. doi: 10.1164/rccm.201602-0420CP

Ishikura H, Nishida T, Murai A et al (2014) New diagnostic strategy for sepsis-induced disseminated intravascular coagulation: a prospective single-center observational study. Crit Care; 18 :R19

Jiroutková K, Krajčová A, Ziak J et al (2015) Mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle of patients with protracted critical illness and ICU-acquired weakness. Crit Care; 19:448
• ICU patients demonstrate a 50% reduction in the ability of skeletal muscle to synthetize ATP in mitochondria

Jolley SE, Bunnell A, Hough CL (2016) Intensive care unit acquired weakness. Chest; 4(3):E448-E454

Jones AE, Puskarich MA (2014) The Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines 2012: update for emergency physicians. Ann Emerg Med; 63(1):35–47

Kalich BA, Maguire JM, Campbell-Bright SL et al (2016) Impact of an antibiotic-specific sepsis bundle on appropriate and timely antibiotic administration for severe sepsis in the emergency department. J Emerg Med; 50(1):79-88.e1. doi: 10.1016/j.jemermed.2015.09.007

Karkare K, Sinha S, Taly AB et al (2013) Prevalence and profile of sleep disturbances in Guillain-Barre Syndrome: a prospective questionnaire-based study during 10 days of hospitalization. Acta Neurol Scand; 127(2):116-23. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0404.2012.01688.x

Katz N, Ronco C (2016) Acute kidney stress—a useful term based on evolution in the understanding of acute kidney injury. Critical Care; 20:23

Kellum JA, Bellomo R, Ronco C (2016) Does this patient have acute kidney injury? An AKI checklist. Int Care Med; 42(1):96-9. doi: 10.1007/s00134-015-4026-4

Kempainen RR et al (2004) The evaluation and management accidental hypothermia. Resp Care, 49, 192-205
• review of epidemiology, pathophysiology, presentation and treatment

Khan F, Pallant JF, Amatya B et al (2011) Outcomes of high- and low-intensity rehabilitation programme for persons in chronic phase after Guillain-Barré syndrome: a randomized controlled trial. J Rehabil Med; 43(7):638-46. doi: 10.2340/16501977-0826

Kimmoun A, Novy E, Auchet T et al (2015) Hemodynamic consequences of severe lactic acidosis in shock states: from bench to bedside. Crit Care;19:175. doi: 10.1186/s13054-015-0896-7

Klouwenberg PMCK, Frencken JF, Kuipers S et al (2017) Incidence, predictors, and outcomes of new-onset atrial fibrillation in critically ill patients with sepsis. a cohort study. Am J Respir Crit Care Med; 195(2):205 -11

Kohji Okamoto K, Tamura T, Sawatsubashi Y (2016) Sepsis and disseminated intravascular coagulation. J Int Care; 4:23. doi: 10.1186/s40560-016-0149-0

Koshy K, Zochodne DW (2013) Neuromuscular complications of critical illness. Handb Clin Neurol; 115:759-80

Kwiatt ME (2013) Fat embolism syndrome. Int J Crit Illn Inj Sci; 3(1):64-8

Lacomis D (2013) Electrophysiology of neuromuscular disorders in critical illness. Muscle Nerve; 47(3):452-63. doi: 10.1002/mus.23615

Leatherman J (2015) Mechanical ventilation for severe asthma. Chest; 147(6):1671-80. doi: 10.1378/chest.14-1733

Le Guennec L, Brisset M, Viala K et al (2014) Post-traumatic stress symptoms in Guillain-Barré syndrome patients after prolonged mechanical ventilation in ICU: a preliminary report. J Peripher Nerv Syst; 19(3):218-23. doi: 10.1111/jns.12087

Lipinska-Gediga M (2016) Sepsis and septic shock-is a microcirculation a main player? Anaesthesiol Intensive Ther; 48(4):261-265. doi: 10.5603/AIT.a2016.0037

Liu H-K, Chen W-C (2011) Fat embolism syndrome. N Engl J Med, 364, 176

Mahajan A, Lat I (2010) Correction of coagulopathy in the setting of acute liver failure. Crit Care Nurs Clin N Am, 22, 3, 315-321

Malbrain MLNG, Peeters Y, Wise R (2016) The neglected role of abdominal compliance in organ-organ interactions. Crit Care; 201620:67. doi: 10.1186/s13054-016-1220-x

Mani RK, Schmidt W, Lund LW (2013) Respiratory dialysis for avoidance of intubation in acute exacerbation of COPD. ASAIO J; 59(6):675-8. doi: 10.1097/MAT.0000000000000004.

Maraví-Poma E, Zubia-Olaskoaga F (2015) Current status in the management of acute pancreatitis. Emergency Med; 6:297. doi:10.4172/2165-7548.1000297

Marshall JC (2013) The liver in sepsis: shedding light on the cellular basis of hepatocyte dysfunction. Crit Care, 17:153. doi:10.1186/cc12731

McKay CA Jr (2014) Toxin-induced respiratory distress. Emerg Med Clin North Am; 32(1):127-47. doi: 10.1016/j.emc.2013.09.003

Merkies IS (2016) Fatigue, pain, anxiety and depression in Guillain-Barré syndrome and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy.
Eur Neurol; 75(3-4):199-206. doi: 10.1159/000445347

Mohsenin V (2013) Assessment and management of cerebral edema and intracranial hypertension in acute liver failure. J Crit Care. doi:pii: S0883-9441(13)00109-3

Montanaro N (2016) Sepsis resuscitation: consensus and controversies. Crit Care Nurs Q; 39(1):58-63. doi: 10.1097/CNQ.0000000000000098

Müller D, Desel H (2013) Common causes of poisoning: etiology, diagnosis and treatment. Dtsch Arztebl Int; 110(41):690-700

Namas RA, Vodovotz Y, Almahmoud K et al (2016) Temporal patterns of circulating inflammation biomarker networks differentiate susceptibility to nosocomial infection following blunt trauma in humans. Ann Surg; 263(1):191-8. doi: 10.1097/SLA.0000000000001001
• severe traumatic injury can lead to immune dysfunction that renders trauma patients susceptible to nosocomial infections and prolonged ICU stays

Nickerson TP, Thiels CA, Kim BD et al (2016) Outcomes of complete versus partial surgical stabilization of flail chest. World J Surg; 40(1):236-41. doi: 10.1007/s00268-015-3169-3

Ning J, Mo L, Zhao H et al (2014) Transient regional hypothermia applied to a traumatic limb attenuates distant lung injury following blast limb trauma. Crit Care Med; 42(1):e68-78. doi: 10.1097/CCM.0b013e3182a84daa

Park JY, Park S, Park SY et al (2016) Day 3 versus Day 1 disseminated intravascular coagulation score among sepsis patients: a prospective observational study. Anaesth Intensive Care; 44(1):57-64
• a quarter of septic patients develop DIC

Pettiford BL, Luketich JD, Landreneau RJ (2007) The management of flail chest. Thorac Surg Clin; 17(1):25-33.

Pickkers P (2017) Towards precision medicine for sepsis patients. Crit Care; 21:11. doi: 10.1186/s13054-016-1583-z

Prendecki M, Blacker E, Sadeghi-Alavijeh O et al (2016) Improving outcomes in patients with Acute Kidney Injury: the impact of hospital based automated AKI alerts. Postgrad Med J; 92(1083):9-13. doi: 10.1136/postgradmedj-2015-133496

Prowle JR (2014) Acute kidney injury: an intensivist's perspective. Pediatr Nephrol; 29(1):13-21. doi: 10.1007/s00467-013-2411-1

Ravi G. Gupta RG, Hartigan SM, Kashiouris MG et al (2015) Early goal-directed resuscitation of patients with septic shock: current evidence and future directions. Crit Care; 19:286

Rezende-Neto JB (2013) Abdominal catastrophes in the intensive care unit setting. Crit Care Clinics; 29(4):1017-1044

Reshamwala PA (2010) Management of ascites. Crit Care Nurs Clin N Am, 22, 3, 309-314

Ruggeri P, Calcaterra S, Bottari A et al (2016) Successful management of acute respiratory failure with noninvasive mechanical ventilation after drowning, in an epileptic-patient. Respir Med Case Rep; 17: 90–92. doi: 10.1016/j.rmcr.2016.02.004

Saracco P, Vitale P, Scolfaro C et al (2012) The coagulopathy in sepsis: significance and implications for treatment. Pediatr Rep, 3, 4, e30. doi: 10.4081/pr.2011.e30

Schepens T, Verbrugghe W, Dams K et al (2015) The course of diaphragm atrophy in ventilated patients assessed with ultrasound: a longitudinal cohort study. Crit Care; 19:422

Sendhilkumar R, Gupta A, Nagarathna R et al (2016) "Effect of pranayama and meditation as an add-on therapy in rehabilitation of patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome--a randomized control pilot study". Disabil Rehabil; 35(1):57-62. doi: 10.3109/09638288.2012.687031

Shahn DR, Bouillon B, Cerny V et al (2013) Management of bleeding and coagulopathy following major trauma: an updated European guideline. Crit Care; 17:R76

Shankar-Hari M, Bertolini G, Brunkhorst F et al (2015) Judging quality of current septic shock definitions and criteria. Crit Care; 19:445
Shiao C-C, Wu P-C, Huang T-M et al (2015) Long-term remote organ consequences following acute kidney injury. Crit Care; 19:438

Shiao C-C, Wu P-C, Huang T-M et al (2015) Long-term remote organ consequences following acute kidney injury. Crit Care; 19:438

Shin TG, Jo IJ, Hwang SY et al (2016) Comprehensive interpretation of central venous oxygen saturation and blood lactate levels during resuscitation of patients with severe sepsis and septic shock in the emergency department. Shock; 45(1):4-9. doi: 10.1097/SHK.0000000000000466

Singer M, Deutschman CS, Seymour CW et al (2016) The Third International Consensus Definitions for Sepsis and Septic Shock (Sepsis-3). JAMA; 315(8): 801-810. doi: 10.1001/jama.2016.0287.

Sio SWS, Moochhala S, Lu J (2010) Early protection from burn-induced acute lung injury by deletion of preprotachykinin-a gene. Am J Respir Crit Care Med, 181, 1, 36-47
• blockage of inflammatory mediators may prevent the development of acute lung injury after burns

Spahn DR, Bouillon B, Cerny V et al (2013) Management of bleeding and coagulopathy following major trauma: an updated European guideline. Crit Care, 17, R76

Suárez DLRA, Gilsanz F, Maseda E (2016) Epidemiologic trends of sepsis in western countries. Ann Translational Med; 4(17):325. doi: 10.21037/atm.2016.08.59.

Szpilman D, Bierens JJLM, Handley AJ et al (2012) Drowning. N Engl J Med, 366, 2102-2110

Tagami T, Matsui H, Fushimi K et al (2016) Prophylactic antibiotics may improve outcome in patients with severe burns requiring mechanical ventilation: propensity score analysis of a Japanese nationwide database. Clin Infect Dis; 62(1):60-6. doi: 10.1093/cid/civ763

Takasu O, Gaut JP, Watanabe E et al (2013) Mechanisms of cardiac and renal dysfunction in patients dying of sepsis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med, 187, 5, 509-17

Tsuruta R, Oda Y (2016) A clinical perspective of sepsis-associated delirium. J Int Care; 4:18. doi: 10.1186/s40560-016-0145-4

Vandenberghe W (2014) Acute kidney injury survivors should have long-term follow-up. Crit Care, 18:703 doi:10.1186/s13054-014-0703-x
• survivors of AKI require on-going surveillance because of their long-term susceptibility to heart failure and myocardial infarction

Villa G, Ricci Z, Romagnoli S et al (2016) Multidimensional approach to adequacy of renal replacement therapy in acute kidney injury. Contrib Nephrol; 187:94-105. doi: 10.1159/000442580

Vincent JL (2016) Individual gene expression and personalised medicine in sepsis. Lancet Respir Med; 4(4): 242–243
• anti-inflammatory drugs are only effective if given very early.

Walker P, Buehner M, Wood L et al (2015) Diagnosis and management of inhalation injury: an updated review. Crit Care; 19:351

Wei A-L, Guo Q, Wang M-J et al (2016) Early complications after interventions in patients with acute pancreatitis. World Journal of Gastroenterology; 22(9):2828-2836. doi:10.3748/wjg.v22.i9.2828.

Whyte J (2013) Disorders of consciousness: outcomes, comorbidities, and care needs. Arch Phys Med Rehabil, 94(10):1851-4

Wierstra B, Kadri S, Alomar S et al (2016) The impact of “early” versus “late” initiation of renal replacement therapy in critical care patients with acute kidney injury: a systematic review and evidence synthesis. Crit Care; 20:122. doi: 10.1186/s13054-016-1291-8

Willison HJ, Jacobs BC, van Doorn PA (2016) Guillain-Barré syndrome. Lancet; 388(10045):717-27. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(16)00339-1

Windisch O, Heidegger C, Giraud R et al (2016) Thoracic epidural analgesia: a new approach for the treatment of acute pancreatitis? Crit Care; 20:116

Witsch J, Galldiks N, Bender A et al (2013) Long-term outcome in patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome requiring mechanical ventilation. J Neurol; 260(5):1367-74. doi: 10.1007/s00415-012-6806-x

Wojciechowski B (2012) Carbon monoxide poisoning. Focus: J Respir Care Sleep Med, Winter 2012, p9

Wolf SJ, Maloney GE, Shih RD et al (2017) Critical issues in the evaluation and management of adult patients presenting to the emergency department with acute carbon monoxide poisoning. Ann Emerg Med; 69(1): 98-107.e6

Wu X, Li C, Zhang B et al (2015) Predictors for mechanical ventilation and short-term prognosis in patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome. Crit Care; 19:310. doi:10.1186/s13054-015-1037-z
• intravenous corticosteroids are a risk factor for poor short-term prognosis in Guillain-Barré syndrome

Wurzer P, Voigt CD, Clayton RP et al (2016) Long-term effects of physical exercise during rehabilitation in patients with severe burns. Surgery; 160(3):781-8. doi: 10.1016/j.surg.2016.04.028

Xiujuan Wu, Chunrong Li, Bing Zhang et al (2015) Predictors for mechanical ventilation and short-term prognosis in patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome. Crit Care; 19:310. doi: 10.1186/s13054-015-1037-z

Xu XD, Wang ZY, Zhang LY et al (2015) Acute pancreatitis classifications: basis and key goals. Medicine (Baltimore); 94(48):e2182. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000002182  

Yang HT, Yim H, Cho YS et al (2014) Assessment of biochemical markers in the early post-burn period for predicting acute kidney injury and mortality in patients with major burn injury: comparison of serum creatinine, serum cystatin-C, plasma and urine neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin. Crit Care; 18:R151. doi:10.1186/cc13989

Zaky A, Deem S, Bendjelid K et al (2014) Characterization of cardiac dysfunction in sepsis: an ongoing challenge. Shock; 41(1):12-24. doi: 10.1097/SHK.0000000000000065.

Zorowitz RD (2016) ICU-acquired weakness: a rehabilitation perspective of diagnosis, treatment, and functional management. Chest; 150(4):966-971. doi: 10.1016/j.chest.2016.06.006

CPAP = continuous positive airways pressure
PEEP = positive end-expiratory pressure