ICU - Monitoring
AARC (2011) Capnography/capnometry during mechanical ventilation. Respir Care; 56(4):503509
www.rcjournal.com/cpgs/pdf/04.11.0503.pdf


Anand T, vanSonnenberg E, Gadani K et al (2016) A snapshot of circulation failure following acute traumatic injury: The expansion of computed tomography beyond injury diagnosis. Injury; 47(1):50-2. doi: 10.1016/j.injury.2015.09.013
CT scans with a flat Inferior vena cava suggest hypovolemia, and the presence of shock bowel implies hypoperfusion.

Bissett B, Green M, Marzano V et al (2016) Reliability and utility of the Acute Care Index of Function in intensive care patients: an observational study. Heart Lung; 45(1):10-4. doi: 10.1016/j.hrtlng.2015.09.008

Deitch K (2010) Does end tidal CO2 monitoring during emergency department procedural sedation and analgesia with propofol decrease the incidence of hypoxic events? A randomized controlled trial. Ann Emerg Med, 55, 3, 258-264
* monitoring of ETCO2 during sedation reduces hypoxic episodes.Mr Site

Durbin CG (2016) Physiologic monitoring: improving safety or increasing risk? Respir Care; 61(8):1110-1121
* it has been claimed that pulmonary artery catheters are associated with no improvement for patients, and, in some studies, worse patient outcomes

Ho KM (2016) Pitfalls in haemodynamic monitoring in the postoperative and critical care setting. Anaesth Intensive Care; 44(1):14-19

Magder S (2015) Understanding central venous pressure: not a preload index? Curr Opin Crit Care; 21(5):369-75. doi: 10.1097/MCC.0000000000000238

Moerman A, De Hert S (2016) Cerebral oximetry: the standard monitor of the future? Curr Opin Crit Care; 28(6): 703709. doi: 10.1097/ACO.0000000000000256
monitoring the brain noninvasively by cerebral oximetry has shown improved outcomes in both neurologic and major organ morbidity

Nassar BS, Schmidt GA (2016) Capnography during critical illness. Chest; 149(2):576-585. doi:10.1378/chest.15-1369

Perner A, Haase N, Wiis J (2010) Central venous oxygen saturation for the diagnosis of low cardiac output in septic shock patients. Acta Anaesth Scand, 54, 1, 98-102
www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/fulltext/122591136/HTMLSTART
central venous oxygen saturation, measured via central line in superior vena cava, could be a surrogate marker of cardiac output; when this is < 64%, cardiac index is likely to be < 2.5 l/min/m2

Pinsky MR, Clermont G, Hravnak M (2016) Predicting cardiorespiratory instability. Critical Care; 20:70. doi: 10.1186/s13054-016-1223-7.
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4794858/
near infra‐red spectroscopy permits continuous, non‐invasive measurement of tissue O2 saturation

Siobal MS (2016) Monitoring exhaled carbon dioxide. Respir Care; 61(10):1397-1416

Stites M (2013) Observational pain scales in critically ill adults.
Crit Care Nurse, 33(3):68-78. doi: 10.4037/ccn2013804.
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23727853

Vincent JL (2008) Understanding cardiac output. Crit Care, 12, 4, 174
ccforum.com/content/12/4/174
succinct explanation of the four determinants of cardiac output and how cardiac output is affected by different circumstances