Lung recruitment, Intermittent Positive Pressure Breathing and Continuous Positive Airway Pressure
AARC Clinical Practice Guideline: intermittent positive pressure breathing (2003). Respir Care, 48, 5, 540–46

Bott J, Keilty SEJ, Noone L (1992) Intermittent positive pressure breathing - a dying art? Physiotherapy, 78, 656-60

Brambilla AM, Aliberti S, Prina E et al (2014) Helmet CPAP vs. oxygen therapy in severe hypoxemic respiratory failure due to pneumonia. Intensive Care Medicine; 40(7):942-9. doi: 10.1007/s00134-014-3325-5. Erratum in: Intensive Care Medicine; 40(8):1187

Busk M (2013) Use of continuous positive airway pressure reduces airway reactivity in adults with asthma. Europ Resp J; 41(2):317-322. doi: 10.1183/09031936.00059712

Chebel NA, Ziade D, Achkouty R (2010) Bilateral pneumothorax and pneumomediastinum after treatment with continuous positive airway pressure after orthognathic surgery. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg; 48(4):e14-5. doi: 10.1016/j.bjoms.2009.12.005

Chen Y-H, Yeh M-C, Hu H-C et al (2016) Effects of lung expansion therapy on lung function in patients with prolonged mechanical ventilation. Can Respir J; 2016:5624315. doi: 10.1155/2016/5624315
• IPPB helps increase lung volume and clear secretions

Chiou M, Bach JR, Jethani L et al (2017) Active lung volume recruitment to preserve vital capacity in Duchenne muscular dystrophy. J Rehabil Med; 49(1):49-53. doi: 10.2340/16501977-2144.

Denehy L, Berney S (2001) The use of positive pressure devices by physiotherapists. Eur Respir J, 17, 821-9.
• excellent overview of CPAP, IPPB and NIV

Gee SL, Lowe GR, Warren RH (2015) Complications with utilization of positive-pressure devices in a young man with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Respir Care; 60(2):e30-3

Ireland CJ, Chapman TM, Mathew SF et al (2014) Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) during the postoperative period for prevention of postoperative morbidity and mortality following major abdominal surgery. Cochrane Database Syst Rev; (8):CD008930. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD008930.pub2

Luiz T, Kumpch M, Grüttner J et al (2016) Prehospital CPAP therapy by emergency physicians in patients with acute respiratory failure due to acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema or acutely exacerbated COPD. In Vivo; 30(2):133-139

Luo Y, Luo Y, Li Y et al (2016) Helmet CPAP versus oxygen therapy in hypoxemic acute respiratory failure: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Yonsei Med J; 57(4):936-41. doi: 10.3349/ymj.2016.57.4.936.

Mellies U, Goebel C (2014) Optimum insufflation capacity and peak cough flow in neuromuscular disorders. Ann Am Thorac Soc; 11(10):1560-8. doi: 10.1513/AnnalsATS.201406-264OC

Pettiford BL, Luketich JD, Landreneau RJ (2007) The management of flail chest. Thorac Surg Clin; 17(1):25-33.

Soilemezi E, Koco E, Tsimpos C et al (2016) Effects of continuous positive airway pressure on diaphragmatic kinetics and breathing pattern in healthy individuals. Respirology; 21(7):1262-9. doi: 10.1111/resp.12823

Sommer JU (2013) Functional short- and long-term effects of nasal CPAP with and without humidification on the ciliary function of the nasal respiratory epithelium. Sleep Breath; 18(1):85-93. doi: 10.1007/s11325-013-0853-0

Spring C (1999) The fibre-optic bronchoscope in the ICU. Br J Int Care, 9, 14-22
• positive pressure of 20 cmH2O is necessary to re-expand lung

Starke ID et al (1979) IPPB and hypercapnia in respiratory failure: the effect of different concentrations of inspired oxygen on arterial blood gas tensions. Anaesthesia, 34, 283-7

Stiller K et al (1992) The effect of intermittent positive pressure breathing on lung volumes in acute quadraparesis. Paraplegia, 30, 121-6
• IPPB improves lung volume in patients with paraplegia

Sun YQ, Wei Q, Liu Z (2016b) Efficacy of continuous positive airway pressure in the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease combined with respiratory failure. American Journal Ther; 23(2):e439-50. doi: 10.1097/MJT.0000000000000222

Torres G et al (1960) The effects of intermittent positive pressure breathing on the intrapulmonary distribution of inspired air. Am J Med, 29, 6, 946-54
• IPPB improves tidal volume and the evenness of ventilation, but no more than voluntary deep breathing, so is most beneficial for those unable to deep breathe normally

Walk J, Dinga P, Banda C et al (2016) Non-invasive ventilation with bubble CPAP is feasible and improves respiratory physiology in hospitalised Malawian children with acute respiratory failure. Paediatr Int Child Health; 36(1):28-33. doi: 10.1179/2046905514Y.0000000166. Epub 2014 Nov 30.

Welch MA (1980) Methods of intermittent positive pressure breathing. Chest, 78, 463-6
• variation of volumes according to method of application

AARC = American Association for Respiratory Care.
CPAP = continuous positive airways pressure
IPPB = intermittent positive pressure breathing
NIV = non-invasive ventilation