Nutrition for cardiorespiratory patients
Agarwal E, Ferguson M, Bank M et al (2013) Malnutrition and poor food intake are associated with prolonged hospital stay, frequent readmissions, and greater in-hospital mortality: Results from the Nutrition Care Day Survey 2010. Clin Nutr; 32(5):737-745

Ali Abdelhamid Y, Chapman MJ, Deane AM (2016) Peri-operative nutrition. Anaesthesia; 71 Suppl 1:9-18. doi: 10.1111/anae.13310
• malnutrition increases both morbidity and mortality

Alkhawaja S, Martin C, Butler RJ et al (2015) Post-pyloric versus gastric tube feeding for preventing pneumonia and improving nutritional outcomes in critically ill adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev; 8:CD008875. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD008875.pub2

Ambrosini GL (2013) Prospective associations between sugar-sweetened beverage intakes and cardiometabolic risk factors in adolescents. Am J Clin Nutr; 98(2): 327-334. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.112.051383

Bagan P (2013) Nutritional status and postoperative outcome after pneumonectomy for lung cancer. Ann Thorac Surg; 95(2):392-6

Beaudart C, Dawson A, Shaw SC et al (2017) Nutrition and physical activity in the prevention and treatment of sarcopenia: systematic review. Osteoporos Int; 28(6):1817-33. doi: 10.1007/s00198-017-3980-9

Bunn DK, Abdelhamid A, Copley M et al (2016) Effectiveness of interventions to indirectly support food and drink intake in people with dementia: Eating and Drinking Well IN dementiA (EDWINA) systematic review. BMC Geriatr; 16(1):89. doi: 10.1186/s12877-016-0256-8

Casas R, Sacanella E, Urpí-Sardà M et al (2016) Long-term immunomodulatory effects of a Mediterranean diet in adults at high risk of cardiovascular disease in the Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea (PREDIMED) randomized controlled trial. J Nutr; 146(9):1684-93. doi: 10.3945/jn.115.229476

Collins J, Porter J, Truby H et al (2016) How does nutritional state change during a subacute admission? Findings and implications for practice. Eur J Clin Nutr, 70:607-612. doi: 10.1038/ejcn.2016.2

Correia LCL, Sodré F, Garcia G et al (2013) Relation of severe deficiency of vitamin D to cardiovascular mortality during acute coronary syndromes. Am J Cardiol; 111(3):324-327

Crowe FL, Appleby PN, Travis RC et al (2013) Risk of hospitalization or death from ischemic heart disease among British vegetarians and nonvegetarians: results from the EPIC-Oxford cohort study. Am J Clin Nutr; 97(3):597-603. doi:10.3945/ajcn.112.044073
• vegetarians reduce their risk of heart disease risk

Dudgeon D (2016) Physiological and functional failure in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, congestive heart failure and cancer: a debilitating intersection of sarcopenia, cachexia and breathlessness. Curr Opin Support Palliat Care; 10(3):236-41. doi: 10.1097/SPC.0000000000000222

Deutz NE, Matheson EM, Matarese LE et al (2016) Readmission and mortality in malnourished, older, hospitalized adults treated with a specialized oral nutritional supplement: A randomized clinical trial. Clin Nutr; 35(1):18–26

Dizdar OS, Baspınar O, Kocer D et al (2016) Nutritional risk, micronutrient status and clinical outcomes: a prospective observational study in an infectious disease clinic. Nutrients; 8(3). pii: E124. doi: 10.3390/nu8030124

Druml C, Ballmer PE, Druml W (2016) ESPEN guideline on ethical aspects of artificial nutrition and hydration. Clin Nutr; 35(3):545-56. doi:

Elia M, Normand C, Laviano A et al (2016) A systematic review of the cost and cost effectiveness of using standard oral nutritional supplements in community and care home settings. Clin Nutr; 35(1):125-37. doi: 10.1016/j.clnu.2015.07.012

Fonseca J, Santos CA, Brito J (2016) Malnutrition and clinical outcome of 234 head and neck cancer patients who underwent percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy. Nutr Cancer; 68(4):589-97. doi: 10.1080/01635581

Fukui H, Iwahashi H, Endoh S et al (2015) Ascorbic acid attenuates acute pulmonary oxidative stress and inflammation caused by zinc oxide nanoparticles. J Occup Health; 57(2):118-25. doi: 10.1539/joh.14-0161-OA
• vitamin C reduces infection

Gariballa S, Alessa A (2013) Sarcopenia: prevalence and prognostic significance in hospitalized patients. Clin Nutr; 32(5):772-776

Gonzalez JT, Stevenson EJ (2014) Assessment of the post-exercise glycemic response to food: Considering prior nutritional status. Nutrition; 30(1):122-3. doi: 10.1016/j.nut.2013.05.015

Grosso G, Mistretta A, Frigiola A et al (2014) Mediterranean diet and cardiovascular risk factors: a systematic review. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr; 54(5):593-610. doi: 10.1080/10408398.2011.596955

Gunst J, Van den Berghe G (2017) Parenteral nutrition in the critically ill. Curr Opin Crit Care; 23(2):149-158. doi: 10.1097/MCC.0000000000000385

Günay E, Kaymaz D, Selçuk NT et al (2013) Effect of nutritional status in individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease undergoing pulmonary rehabilitation. Respirology; 18(8):1217-22. doi: 10.1111/resp.12133

Hanson C, Lyden E, Furtado J et al (2016) Serum tocopherol levels and vitamin E intake are associated with lung function in the normative aging study. Clin Nutr; 35(1):169–174. doi:
• vitamin E optimises lung function

Hejazi ME, Modarresi-Ghazani F, Entezari-Maleki T (2016) A review of Vitamin D effects on common respiratory diseases: asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and tuberculosis. J Res Pharm Pract; 5(1):7-15. doi: 10.4103/2279-042X.176542

Heyland DK (2012) Randomised controlled trial: early supplemental parenteral nutrition in critically ill adults increased infections, ICU length of stay and cost. Evid Based Med; 17(3):86-87; doi:10.1136/ebm.2011.100252
• the combination of nutrition and exercise may have the greatest impact on physical recovery of survivors of critical illness

Hill N (2011) Military nutrition: maintaining health and rebuilding injured tissue. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci, 366, 1562, 231–40
• ICU nutrition is seen as an independent treatment modality in its own right

Itoh M, Tsuji T, Nemoto K (2013) Undernutrition in patients with COPD and its treatment. Nutrients, 18, 5, 4, 1316-35. doi: 10.3390/nu5041316

Jin X, Su R, Li R, Song L et al (2016) Amelioration of particulate matter-induced oxidative damage by vitamin c and quercetin in human bronchial epithelial cells. Chemosphere; 144:459-66. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2015.09.023
• vitamin C reduces the respiratory oxidative damage caused by pollution

Kaul A, Gläser S, Hannemann A et al (2016) Vitamin D is associated with cardiopulmonary exercise capacity: results of two independent cohorts of healthy adults. Br J Nutr; 115(3):500-8. doi: 10.1017/S000711451500464X
• significant positive association between vitamin D and exercise capacity

Kelaiditi E, van Kan GA, Cesari M (2014) Frailty: role of nutrition and exercise. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care; 17(1):32-9

Kesse-Guyot E (2013) Mediterranean diet and cognitive function: a French study. Am J Clin Nutr; 97(2):369-376. doi:10.3945/ajcn.112.047993

Kinikini M (2012) Making a difference with early enteral feeding. Nurs2012 Crit Care, 7, 1, 29-33

Komiya K, Ishii H, Okabe E et al (2013), Risk factors for unexpected death from suffocation in elderly patients hospitalized for pneumonia. Geriatr Gerontol Internat, 13, 2, 388–392. doi: 10.1111/j.1447-0594.2012.00912.x

Luo Y, Zhou L, Li Y et al (2016) Fat-free mass index for evaluating the nutritional status and disease severity in COPD. Respir Care; 61(5):680-688

Marik PE, Flemmer M (2012) Immunonutrition in the surgical patient. Minerva Anestesiol, 78, 3, 336-42
• immunomodulating formulae improve outcome after major surgery or other trauma

Miles FL, Chang SC, Morgenstern H et al (2016) Associations of red and processed meat with survival among patients with cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract and lung. Nutr Res; 36(6):620-6. doi: 10.1016/j.nutres.2016.01.006
• red and processed meat have been linked to mortality in lung cancer

Muscaritoli M, Anker SD, Argilés J et al (2010) Consensus definition of sarcopenia, cachexia and pre-cachexia. Clin Nutr, 29, 2, 154-9
• chronic disease is frequently associated with deterioration of nutritional status, loss of muscle mass and function, impaired QoL and increased risk for morbidity and mortality

Ndanuko RN, Tapsell LC, Charlton KE et al (2016) Dietary patterns and blood pressure in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Adv Nutr; 7(1):76-89. doi: 10.3945/an.115.009753

Nguyen NQ (2012) Delayed enteral feeding impairs intestinal carbohydrate absorption in critically ill patients. Crit Care Med, 40, 1, 50-54
• enteral feeding should be initiated within 24 hours of admission to the ICU

Omata J, Pierre JF, Heneghan AF et al (2013) Parenteral nutrition suppresses the bactericidal response of the small intestine. Surgery, 153, 1, 17-24

Pierik VD, Meskers CGM, Van Ancum JM et al (2017) High risk of malnutrition is associated with low muscle mass in older hospitalized patients - a prospective cohort study. BMC Geriatrics; 17:118. doi:10.1186/s12877-017-0505-5.

Pirabbasi E, Najafiyan M, Cherachi M et al (2012) Predictors' factors of nutritional status of male chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. ISRN Nurs: 782626. doi: 10.5402/2012/782626
• malnutrition, caused by excess energy demand, reduced energy supply and inflammation, has been found in 26-52% of COPD patients

Plank LD (2013) Protein for the critically ill patient—what and when? Eur J Clin Nutr; 67:565-8

Ramprasad R, Kapoor MC (2012) Nutrition in intensive care. J Anaesthesiol Clin Pharmacol, 28, 1, 1–3

Reeves A et al (2014) Energy and protein intakes of hospitalised patients with acute respiratory failure receiving non-invasive ventilation. Clin Nutr; 33(6):1068-73. doi:
• nutrition is often inadequate in patients on non-invasive ventilation

Reignier G, Dimet J (2010) Before–after study of a standardized ICU protocol for early enteral feeding in patients turned in the prone position. Clin Nutr, 29, 2, 210-216
• ventilated patients being proned are at risk of malnutrition, but this risk is reduced by head elevation to 25°

Ried K, Travica N, Sali A (2016) The acute effect of high-dose intravenous vitamin C and other nutrients on blood pressure: a cohort study. Blood Press Monit; 21(3):160-7. doi: 10.1097/MBP.0000000000000178
• vitamin C reduces BP in people with hypertension

Rohrmann S, Overvad K, Bueno-de-Mesquita H et al (2013) Meat consumption and mortality - results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. BMC Med, 11, 63. doi:10.1186/1741-7015-11-63

Sanford AM, Flaherty JH (2014) Do nutrients play a role in delirium? Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care; 17(1):45-50

Schols AM (2013) Nutrition as a metabolic modulator in COPD. Chest;144(4):1340-5. doi: 10.1378/chest.13-0326

Skaaby T et al (2012) Vitamin D status and cause-specific mortality: a general population study. PLoS One. 7(12): e52423. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0052423

Steiner MC, Barton RL, Singh SJ, Morgan MDL (2003) Nutritional enhancement of exercise performance in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a randomised controlled trial. Thorax, 58(9):745–751

Steinhaus DA (2017) Chocolate intake and incidence of heart failure: findings from the cohort of Swedish men. Am Heart J; 183: 18–23
• moderate chocolate intake improves cardiac and vascular function

Soto-Martinez M (2010) What goes around, comes around: childhood influences on later lung health? Relationship between environmental exposures in children and adult lung disease. Chr Respir Dis, 7, 173-186
• diet plays a significant role in respiratory health, including during foetal and infant development.
• ‘Mediterranean diet’ is associated with lung health, while a deficient diet has been associated with susceptibility to the effects of tobacco smoke, air pollution and allergens

Svatikova A, Covassin N, Somers KR et al (2016) A randomized trial of cardiovascular responses to energy drink consumption in healthy adults. JAMA; 314(19):2079-82. doi: 10.1001/jama.2015.13744

Tripathy S, Mishra JC (2015) Assessing nutrition in the critically ill elderly patient: A comparison of two screening tools. Indian J Crit Care Med; 19(9):518-22. doi: 10.4103/0972-5229.164798

Tuffaha HW, Roberts S, Chaboyer W et al (2016) Cost-effectiveness analysis of nutritional support for the prevention of pressure ulcers in high-risk hospitalized patients. Adv Skin Wound Care; 29(6):261-7. doi: 10.1097/01.ASW.0000482992.87682.4c

Ucay O, Pouche M, Guiraud T et al (2017) Vitamin D deficiency related to physical capacity during cardiac rehabilitation. Annals Phys Rehab Med; 60(1):2–5
• lack of vit D occurs in a third of the population, affecting physical fitness, cardiovascular and bone health

Van Wetering CR et al (2010) Efficacy and costs of nutritional rehabilitation in muscle-wasted patients with COPD in a community-based setting. J Am Med Directors Ass, 11, 3, 179-87
• prolonged positive response to nutritional support integrated into a PR programme.

Venkatesh B, Nair P (2014) Hypovitaminosis D and morbidity in critical illness: is there proof beyond reasonable doubt? Crit Care; 18:138. doi:10.1186/cc13863

Verbrugghe M, Beeckman D, Van Hecke A et al (2013) Malnutrition and associated factors in nursing home residents: a cross-sectional, multi-centre study. Clin Nutr; 32(3):438-443

Verlinden VJA, Maksimovic A, Mirza SS et al (2016) The associations of alcohol, coffee and tobacco consumption with gait in a community-dwelling population. Eur J Clin Nutr; 70(1):116-122. doi:10.1038/ejcn.2015.120

Vogiatzoglou A, Smith AD, Nurk E et al (2013) Cognitive function in an elderly population: interaction between vitamin B12 status, depression, and apolipoprotein E ɛ4: the Hordaland Homocysteine Study. J Psychosomat Med, 35, 20-29. doi:10.1097/PSY.0b013e3182761b6c

Weimann A, Braga M, Carli F et al (2017) ESPEN guideline: Clinical nutrition in surgery. Clin Nutr; 36(3):623-650. doi: 10.1016/j.clnu.2017.02.013

Yang S, Wu X, Yu W et al (2014) Early enteral nutrition in critically ill patients with hemodynamic instability: an evidence-based review and practical advice. Nutr Clin Pract; 29(1):90-6. doi: 10.1177/0884533613516167

Zochios V, Wilkinson J, Perry J et al (2012) Current state of glycemic control in critically ill subjects in a general intensive care unit. Int J Gen Med, 5, 23–26

BLF leaflet for patients

AORN = Association of PeriOperative Registered Nurses.
BLF = British Lung Foundation
BP = blood pressure
PR = pulmonary rehabilitation
QoL = quality of life