Respiratory care for children and infants
GUIDELINES FOR FAMILY-CENTERED CARE IN THE NEONATAL, PEDIATRIC, AND ADULT ICU. Davidson JE, Aslakson RA, Long AC et al (2017) Crit Care Med; 45(1):103–128. doi: 10.1097/CCM.0000000000002169

AMERICAN THORACIC SOCIETY CLINICAL PRACTICE GUIDELINE: pediatric chronic home invasive ventilation (2016)

BRONCHIOLITIS IN CHILDREN (2016) NICE quality standard [QS122],4BRT5,KOOKW9,FXO7L,1

NICE Guideline (2016) Transition from children’s to adults’ services for young people using health or social care services [NG43]

NICE Guideline (2016) End of life care for infants, children and young people with life-limiting conditions [NG61]


CLINICAL PRACTICE GUIDELINE: the Diagnosis, Management,
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• current asthma prevalence has ceased to increase in recent years

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• kangaroo care reduces morbidity and mortality

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• pneumonia is associated with the development of asthma in later life

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• a parent holding the infant in a flexed position reduces the stress of suction

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• importance of multidisciplinary management, the aim being to 'treat more while hurting less'

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• kangaroo care improves sleep in the baby and increases milk production by the mother

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• pain in early life injury appears to cause enhanced sensitivity to pain in later life

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• Montelukast provides asthma control in the majority of children

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Buller Y, Sims C (2016) Prolonged fasting of children before anaesthesia is common in private practice. Anaesth Int Care; 44(1): 107-110
• pre-op fasting can be excessive, up to 16 hours in some cases

Byrne E, Campbell SK (2013) Physical therapy observation and assessment in the neonatal intensive care unit. Phys Occ Ther Ped, 33, 1, 39-74

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Carrie M. 2017. Pediatrician ambiguity in understanding palliative sedation at the end of life
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Case LE, Hartzell AS (2015) Cardiopulmonary exercise testing in children and adolescents with dystrophinopathies: a pilot study. Pediatric Phys Ther; 27(3):227–234. doi: 10.1097/PEP.0000000000000159
• success in respiratory management has led to cardiomyopathies emerging as a cause of mortality, but limited physical activity means that symptoms may not emerge until cardiac involvement is advanced.

Casey JL, Newberry D, Jnah A (2016) Early bubble continuous positive airway pressure: investigating interprofessional best practices for the NICU team. Neonatal Netw; 35(3):125-34. doi: 10.1891/0730-0832.35.3.125

Cattarossi L, Copetti R, Brusa G et al (2016) Lung ultrasound diagnostic accuracy in neonatal pneumothorax. Canadian Respir J; 2016:6515069. doi: 10.1155/2016/6515069.

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• pneumonia in infancy is associated with the development of asthma in later life

Chang AB, Oppenheimer JJ, Weinberger M et al (2016) Children with chronic wet or productive cough--treatment and investigations: a systematic review. Chest; 149(1):120-42. doi: 10.1378/chest.15-2065

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Charpak N, Tessier R, Ruiz JG et al (2017) Twenty-year follow-up of kangaroo mother care versus traditional care. Pediatrics; 139(1):e20162063; doi: 10.1542/peds.2016-2063
• kangaroo care shows short-term improvements in survival and neurodevelopment, and long-term social and behavioural benefits over 20 years

Chen L-J (2015) Physical fitness is associated with enhanced academic performance. J Pediatrics; 166(1): 206–8. doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2014.10.043

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• helmet preferred to mask

Chisti MJ, Salam MA, Smith JH et al (2015) Bubble continuous positive airway pressure for children with severe pneumonia and hypoxaemia in Bangladesh: an open, randomised controlled trial. Lancet;386(9998):1057-65. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(15)60249-5

Choi JY, Rha D, Park ES (2016) Change in pulmonary function after incentive spirometer exercise in children with spastic cerebral palsy: a randomized controlled study. Yonsei Medical Journal; 57(3):769-775. doi: 10.3349/ymj.2016.57.3.769
• incentive spirometry can help children with cerebral palsy by assisting breath control for speech production

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• pediatric patients with ventilator-associated conditions are at higher risk for mortality and morbidity across ICUs

Coffey PS, Saxon EA, Indira N et al (2015) Performance and acceptability of two self-inflating bag-mask neonatal resuscitator designs. Respir Care; 60(9):1227-1237

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Corten. L., Morrow B.M. (2017) Autogenic drainage in children with cystic fibrosis. Pediatr Phys Ther. 29(2), 106-117. doi: 10.1097/PEP.0000000000000355

Cone S, Pickler RH, Grap MJ et al (2013) Endotracheal suctioning in preterm infants using four-handed versus routine care. J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs; 42(1):92-104. doi: 10.1111/1552-6909.12004

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• unstable breathing pattern may indicate inadequate FiO2 or oxygen flow

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Craig F, Henderson EM, Bluebond-Langner M (2015) Management of respiratory symptoms in paediatric palliative care. Curr Opin Support Palliat Care; 9(3):217-26. doi: 10.1097/SPC.0000000000000154

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Cummings JJ, Polin RA (2016) Noninvasive respiratory support. Pediatrics;137(1):1-11. doi: 10.1542/peds.2015-3758

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Daniel M, Cheng A (2012) Neonatal stridor. Int J Pediatr: 859104. doi: 10.1155/2012/859104

Daniels SR (2015) Obesity, physical activity, and blood pressure. J Pediatrics; 167(1):1–3. doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2015.05.019

Daniels SR (2015) Physical activity, inflammation, and intima-media thickness. J Pediatrics; 166(4):783–787. doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2015.02.025

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Dargaville PA (2012) Respiratory support in meconium aspiration syndrome: a practical guide. Int J Pediatr, 2012: 965159. doi: 10.1155/2012/965159

Davies FCW (2013) A patient survey for emergency care designed by children, for children. Arch Dis Child; 98(4):98:247

Day CL, Ryan RM (2016) Bronchopulmonary dysplasia: old becomes new again! Pediatr Res. 2016 Sep 28. doi: 10.1038/pr.2016.201

Dayal R, Agarwal D (2016) Fever in children and fever of unknown origin. Indian J Pediatr; 83(1):38-43. doi: 10.1007/s12098-

Deakins KM (2015) Aerosol delivery with different interfaces: redirecting our focus. Respir Care; 60(9):1363-1364

De Benedictis F, Bush A (2012) Corticosteroids in respiratory diseases in children. Am J Respir Crit Care Med, 185, 1, 12-23
• in children, adverse effects, especially growth and adrenal suppression, are induced by systemic steroids, and to a lesser extent by inhaled steroids

De Godoy VC, Zanetti NM, Johnston C (2013) Manual hyperinflation in airway clearance in pediatric patients: a systematic review. Rev Bras Ter Intensiva; 25(3):258-62. doi: 10.5935/0103-507X.20130043

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De Oliveira N, Mara P, Almeida J et al (2013) Neonatal and pediatric manual hyperinflation: influence of oxygen flow on ventilation parameters. Respir Care; 58(12):2127-2133

Derrington SF (2015) Are we doing right by dying children? J Pediatrics; 166(3): 524–525. doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2014.11.034

Deterding RR, White CW (2014) Humidifier and environmental "chILD" risks. Am J Respir Crit Care Med; 189(1):10-2
• dangers of humidifier contamination, especially in children

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de Vos MA, Bos AP, Plötz FB et al (2015) Talking with parents about end-of-life decisions for their children. Pediatrics; 135(2):e465-e476. doi: 10.1542/peds.2014-1903

De Weerd W, van Tol D, Albers M et al (2015) Suffering in children: opinions from parents and health-care professionals. Europ J Pediatrics; 174(5): 589-595

DiBlasi RM (2015) Clinical controversies in aerosol therapy for infants and children. Respir Care; 60(6):894-916

DiBlasi RM, Dupras D, Kearney C et al (2015) Nitric oxide delivery by neonatal noninvasive respiratory support devices. Respir Care; 60(2):219-230

Di Fiore JM, Martin RJ, Gauda EB (2013) Apnea of prematurity – Perfect storm. Resp Physiol Neurobiol; 189(2):213-222
• periods of apnoea may combine with prematurity to become the ‘perfect storm’ of tissue injury

Di Fiore JM, Walsh M, Wrage L et al (2012) Low oxygen saturation target range is associated with increased incidence of intermittent hypoxemia. J Pediatr; 161(6):1047-52. doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2012.05.046

Diz-Chaves Y, Astiz M, Bellini MJ et al (2013) Prenatal stress increases the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and exacerbates the inflammatory response to LPS in the hippocampal formation of adult male mice. Brain Behavior Immunity, 28, 196-206

Doreswamy SM, Chakkarapani AA, Murthy P (2015) Saturation oxygen pressure index for assessment of pulmonary disease in neonates on non-invasive ventilation. Indian Pediatrics; 52(1):74-75

Doumit M & Jaffé A (2015) Use of the lung flute for sputum induction in children with cystic fibrosis: A pilot study. Ped Pulmonol; 50(4):340–343. doi: 10.1002/ppul.23126

Douros K, Boutopoulou B, Priftis KN et al (2015) Blunted perception of dyspnea in asthmatic children: A potential misleading criterion. World J Clin Pediatr; 4(3):38-40. doi: 10.5409/wjcp.v4.i3.38
• as with adults, the perception of breathlessness may be blunted in children with asthma, which could delay seeking assistance

Duff AJA, Gaskell SL, Jacobs K, Houghton JM (2012) Management of distressing procedures in children and young people: time to adhere to the guidelines. Arch Dis Child, 97, 1-4

Duman N, Tüzün F, Sever AH et al (2016) Nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation with or without very early surfactant therapy for the primary treatment of respiratory distress syndrome. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med; 29(2):252-7. doi: 10.3109/14767058.2014.997203

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• no

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Xie L, Chee YY, Wong KY et al (2016) Cardiac mechanics in children with bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Neonatology; 109(1):44-51. doi: 10.1159/000441051

Yeh TF, Chen CM, Wu SY et al (2016) Intratracheal administration of budesonide/surfactant to prevent bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Am J Respir Crit Care Med; 193(1):86-95. doi: 10.1164/rccm.201505-0861OC

Yousef N (2016) Lung ultrasound in the newborn. Arch Pediatr; 23(3):317-21. doi: 10.1016/j.arcped.2015.12.001

Zareen Z, Hawkes CP, Krickan ER et al (2013) In vitro comparison of neonatal suction catheters using simulated 'pea soup' meconium. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed; 98(3):F241-3

AACN = American Association of Critical-Care Nurses
AARC = American Association for Respiratory Care
ACPRC = Association of Chartered Physiotherapists in Respiratory Care
BTS = British Thoracic Society
CPAP = continuous positive airways pressure
ICP = intracranial pressure
JAMA = Journal of American Medical Association
LRTI = lower respiratory tract infection
PEP = positive expiratory pressure
PICU = paediatric intensive care unit
PTSD = post-traumatic stress disorder
RDS = respiratory distress syndrome
BTS = British Thoracic Society