Respiratory care for children and infants
GUIDELINES FOR FAMILY-CENTERED CARE IN THE NEONATAL, PEDIATRIC, AND ADULT ICU. Davidson JE, Aslakson RA, Long AC et al (2017) Crit Care Med; 45(1):103–128. doi: 10.1097/CCM.0000000000002169
journals.lww.com/ccmjournal/Fulltext/2017/01000/Guidelines_for_Family_Centered_Care_in_the.12.aspx

AMERICAN THORACIC SOCIETY CLINICAL PRACTICE GUIDELINE: pediatric chronic home invasive ventilation (2016)
www.rcjournal.com/cpgs/pdf/ats-home-invasive-ventilation.pdf

BRONCHIOLITIS IN CHILDREN (2016) NICE quality standard [QS122]
https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/qs122/chapter/List-of-quality-statements?utm_source=British%20Lung%20Foundation&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=7267721_HCP%20July%202016&dm_i=FWX,4BRT5,KOOKW9,FXO7L,1

NICE Guideline (2016) Transition from children’s to adults’ services for young people using health or social care services [NG43]
https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/ng43

NICE Guideline (2016) End of life care for infants, children and young people with life-limiting conditions [NG61]
https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/ng61

GUIDELINES for the ACUTE MEDICAL MANAGEMENT of SEVERE TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY in INFANTS, CHILDREN, and ADOLESCENTS (2012) Pediatr Crit Care Med; 13:1(Suppl.)
https://www.braintrauma.org/uploads/08/08/guidelines_pediatric2_2.pdf

CLINICAL PRACTICE GUIDELINE: the Diagnosis, Management,
and Prevention of Bronchiolitis – American Academy of Pediatrics.
pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/134/5/e1474.full.pdf

AARC (2008) Infant/toddler pulmonary function tests. Respir Care; 53(7):929–945
www.rcjournal.com/cpgs/pdf/07.08.0929.pdf

AARC (2010) Evidence-based clinical practice guideline: Inhaled nitric oxide for neonates with acute hypoxic respiratory failure. Respir Care; 55(12):1717–1745
www.rcjournal.com/contents/12.10/12.10.1717.pdf

ALGORITHM fOR THE MANAGEMENT OF CHILDREN WITH ACUTE BREATHING DIFFICULTIES
www.nottingham.ac.uk/paediatric-guideline/breathingguideline.pdf

BTS GUIDELINES FOR THE ASSESSMENT AND MANAGEMENT OF COUGH IN CHILDREN (2008). Thorax, 63 (Suppl III) iii1-iii15
www.brit-thoracic.org.uk/Portals/0/Clinical%20Information/Cough/Guidelines/cough_in_children.pdf

GUIDELINES FOR PREVENTION AND MANAGEMENT OF PAIN AND STRESS IN THE NEONATE
www.guidelines.gov/summary/summary.aspx?ss=15&doc_id=2597&nbr=1823

GUIDELINES ON INHALERS FOR CHILDREN UNDER 5 YEARS
www.nice.org.uk/nicemedia/pdf/NiceINHALERguidance.pdf

GUIDELINES ON NEONATAL RESPIRATORY DISTRESS SYNDROME
www.library.nhs.uk/respiratory/ViewResource.aspx?resID=30114&tabID=288

GUIDELINES ON ECMO IN CHILDREN:
www.nice.org.uk/nicemedia/pdf/ip/IPG038guidance.pdf

BTS GUIDELINES FOR HOME OXYGEN IN CHILDREN:
Balfour-Lynn IM (2009) Thorax, 64, Suppl 2, ii1-ii26
thorax.bmj.com/content/64/Suppl_2


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• current asthma prevalence has ceased to increase in recent years

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• kangaroo care reduces morbidity and mortality

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• pneumonia is associated with the development of asthma in later life

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• a parent holding the infant in a flexed position reduces the stress of suction

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• importance of multidisciplinary management, the aim being to 'treat more while hurting less'

Baik N, Urlesberger B, Schwaberger B et al (2015) Cerebral haemorrhage in preterm neonates: does cerebral regional oxygen saturation during the immediate transition matter? Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal; 100(5):F422-F427. doi:10.1136/archdischild-2014-307590

Bailes SA, Firestone KS, Dunn DK et al (2016) Evaluating the effect of flow and interface type on pressures delivered with bubble CPAP in a simulated model. Respir Care; 61(3):333-339. doi: 10.4187/respcare.04251

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Baley J (2015) Skin-to-skin care for term and preterm infants in the neonatal ICU. Pediatrics; 136(3):596-599. doi: 10.1542/peds.2015-2335
• kangaroo care improves sleep in the baby and increases milk production by the mother

Ballard RA, Keller RL, Black DM et al (2016) Randomized trial of late surfactant treatment in ventilated preterm infants receiving inhaled nitric oxide. J Pediatr; 168:23-29.e4. doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2015.09.031

Banasiak NC (2016) Understanding the relationship between asthma and sleep in the pediatric population. J Pediatr Health Care; 30(6):546-550. doi: 10.1016/j.pedhc.2015.11.012

Bancalari D, Claure N (2013) The evidence for non-invasive ventilation in the preterm infant. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal; 98(2):98:F98-F102. doi:10.1136/archdischild-2011-301266

Barker NJ, Jones M, O'Connell NE et al (2013) Breathing exercises for dysfunctional breathing/hyperventilation syndrome in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013 Dec 18;12:CD010376

Barkman C (2013) Clowning as a supportive measure in paediatrics - a survey of clowns, parents and nursing staff. BMC Pediatr; 13:166

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Basile V, Di Mauro A, Scalini E et al (2015) Lung ultrasound: a useful tool in diagnosis and management of bronchiolitis. BMC Pediatrics, 15:63

Beckett K, Henderson EM et al (2016) A mixed‐method study of pain management practice in a UK children’s hospital: identification of barriers and developing strategies to maintain effective in‐patient paediatric pain management. Nursing Open; 3(1):19-29. doi: 10.1002/nop2.33.
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Beggs S, Currie G, Salter MW et al (2012) Priming of adult pain responses by neonatal pain experience: maintenance by central neuroimmune activity. Brain, 135, 2, 404-417 doi:10.1093/brain/awr288
• pain in early life injury appears to cause enhanced sensitivity to pain in later life

Beker F, Rogerson S, Hooper SB et al (2015) Hemodynamic effects of nasal continuous positive airway pressure in preterm infants with evolving chronic lung disease, a crossover randomized trial. J Pediatrics; 166(2):477–479. doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2014.10.019

Bellieni CV (2013) Use of fetal analgesia during prenatal surgery. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med; 26(1):90–95
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Berlinski A, Willis JR (2015) Effect of tidal volume and nebulizer type and position on albuterol delivery in a pediatric model of mechanical ventilation. Respir Care; 60(10):1424-1430

Berlinski A (2013) nebulized albuterol delivery in a model of spontaneously breathing children with tracheostomy. Respir Care; 58(12):2076-2086

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• Montelukast provides asthma control in the majority of children

Bilan N, Barzegar M, Habibi P (2015) Predictive factors of respiratory failure in children with Guillain-Barre Syndrome. Internat J Pediatrics; 3(1.2):33-37
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Brunherotti MAA, Bezerra PP, Bachur CK et al (2012) Inspiratory muscle training in a newborn with anoxia who was chronically ventilated. Phys Ther, 92, 6, 865-71

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Buil A, Carchon I, Apter G et al (2016) Kangaroo supported diagonal flexion positioning: New insights into skin-to-skin contact for communication between mothers and very preterm infants. Arch Pediatr; 23(9):913-20. doi: 10.1016/j.arcped.2016.04.023

Burkholder S, Burkholder L, Prowse M et al (2015) Critical illness polyneuropathy and myopathy in the PICU. Crit Care Med; 43(12 Suppl 1):130

Buller Y, Sims C (2016) Prolonged fasting of children before anaesthesia is common in private practice. Anaesth Int Care; 44(1): 107-110
• pre-op fasting can be excessive, up to 16 hours in some cases

Byrne E, Campbell SK (2013) Physical therapy observation and assessment in the neonatal intensive care unit. Phys Occ Ther Ped, 33, 1, 39-74

Carnevale FA, Gaudreault J (2013) The experience of critically ill children: A phenomenological study of discomfort and comfort. Dynamics, 24, 1, 19-27

Carrié S, Anderson TA (2015) Volatile anesthetics for status asthmaticus in pediatric patients: a comprehensive review and case series. Pediatr Anesth; 25(5):460–467. doi: 10.1111/pan.12577

Carrie M. 2017. Pediatrician ambiguity in understanding palliative sedation at the end of life
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Case LE, Hartzell AS (2015) Cardiopulmonary exercise testing in children and adolescents with dystrophinopathies: a pilot study. Pediatric Phys Ther; 27(3):227–234. doi: 10.1097/PEP.0000000000000159
• success in respiratory management has led to cardiomyopathies emerging as a cause of mortality, but limited physical activity means that symptoms may not emerge until cardiac involvement is advanced.

Casey JL, Newberry D, Jnah A (2016) Early bubble continuous positive airway pressure: investigating interprofessional best practices for the NICU team. Neonatal Netw; 35(3):125-34. doi: 10.1891/0730-0832.35.3.125

Cattarossi L, Copetti R, Brusa G et al (2016) Lung ultrasound diagnostic accuracy in neonatal pneumothorax. Canadian Respir J; 2016:6515069. doi: 10.1155/2016/6515069.
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Cerritelli F (2013) Effect of osteopathic manipulative treatment on length of stay in a population of preterm infants: a randomized controlled trial. BMC Pediatr; 13:65

Ceylan N, Kaba S, Karaman K et al (2015) Investigation of the effect of the efficiency of noise at different intensities on the DNA of the newborns. Noise & Health; 18(80):7-9. doi: 10.4103/1463-1741.174364.
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Chan JYC, Stern DA, Guerra S et al (2015) Pneumonia in childhood and impaired lung function in adults: a longitudinal study. Pediatrics; 135(4):607-616. doi: 10.1542/peds.2014-3060
• pneumonia in infancy is associated with the development of asthma in later life

Chang AB, Oppenheimer JJ, Weinberger M et al (2016) Children with chronic wet or productive cough--treatment and investigations: a systematic review. Chest; 149(1):120-42. doi: 10.1378/chest.15-2065

Chao JH, Sinert R (2017) Is nebulized hypertonic saline solution effective for acute bronchiolitis? Ann Emerg Med; 69(1):e1-e2

Charpak N, Tessier R, Ruiz JG et al (2017) Twenty-year follow-up of kangaroo mother care versus traditional care. Pediatrics; 139(1):e20162063; doi: 10.1542/peds.2016-2063
• kangaroo care shows short-term improvements in survival and neurodevelopment, and long-term social and behavioural benefits over 20 years

Chen L-J (2015) Physical fitness is associated with enhanced academic performance. J Pediatrics; 166(1): 206–8. doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2014.10.043

Chidini G, Piastra M, Marchesi T et al (2015) Continuous Positive Airway Pressure with helmet versus mask in infants with bronchiolitis: an RCT. Pediatrics; 135(4):e868-e875. doi: 10.1542/peds.2014-1142
• helmet preferred to mask

Chisti MJ, Salam MA, Smith JH et al (2015) Bubble continuous positive airway pressure for children with severe pneumonia and hypoxaemia in Bangladesh: an open, randomised controlled trial. Lancet;386(9998):1057-65. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(15)60249-5

Choi JY, Rha D, Park ES (2016) Change in pulmonary function after incentive spirometer exercise in children with spastic cerebral palsy: a randomized controlled study. Yonsei Medical Journal; 57(3):769-775. doi: 10.3349/ymj.2016.57.3.769
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4800370/
• incentive spirometry can help children with cerebral palsy by assisting breath control for speech production

Choong K, Koo KK, Clark H et al (2013) Early mobilization in critically ill children: a survey of Canadian practice. Crit Care Med; 41(7):1745-53. doi: 10.1097/CCM.0b013e318287f592

Chowdhury O, Bhat P, Rafferty GF et al (2016) In vitro assessment of the effect of proportional assist ventilation on the work of breathing. Eur J Pediatr; 175(5):639-43. doi: 10.1007/s00431-015-2673-7
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26746416

Claure N, Bancalari E (2015) Closed-loop control of inspired oxygen in premature infants. Semin Fetal Neonatal Med;20(3):198-204. doi: 10.1016/j.siny.2015.02.003

Cocoros NM, Kleinman K, Priebe GP et al (2016) Ventilator-associated events in neonates and children-a new paradigm. Crit Care Med; 44(1):14-22
• pediatric patients with ventilator-associated conditions are at higher risk for mortality and morbidity across ICUs

Coffey PS, Saxon EA, Indira N et al (2015) Performance and acceptability of two self-inflating bag-mask neonatal resuscitator designs. Respir Care; 60(9):1227-1237

Colom AJ, Maffey A, Bournissen FG et al (2015) Pulmonary function of a paediatric cohort of patients with postinfectious bronchiolitis obliterans. A long term follow-up. Thorax;70:169-174. doi:10.1136/thoraxjnl-2014-205328

Conti G, Piastra M (2016) Mechanical ventilation for children. Curr Opin Crit Care; 22(1):60-6. doi: 10.1097/MCC.0000000000000271

Cooley WC (2013) Adolescent health care transition in transition. JAMA Pediatr; 167(10): 897-9

Corten. L., Morrow B.M. (2017) Autogenic drainage in children with cystic fibrosis. Pediatr Phys Ther. 29(2), 106-117. doi: 10.1097/PEP.0000000000000355

Cone S, Pickler RH, Grap MJ et al (2013) Endotracheal suctioning in preterm infants using four-handed versus routine care. J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs; 42(1):92-104. doi: 10.1111/1552-6909.12004

Coste F, Ferkol T, Hamvas A et al (2015) Ventilatory control and supplemental oxygen in premature infants with apparent chronic lung disease. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal;100(3):F233-7. doi: 10.1136/archdischild-2014-307272
• unstable breathing pattern may indicate inadequate FiO2 or oxygen flow

Courtois E, Droutman S, Magny JF et al (2016) Epidemiology and neonatal pain management of heelsticks in intensive care units. Int J Nurs Stud; 59:79-88. doi: 10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2016.03.014

Craig F, Henderson EM, Bluebond-Langner M (2015) Management of respiratory symptoms in paediatric palliative care. Curr Opin Support Palliat Care; 9(3):217-26. doi: 10.1097/SPC.0000000000000154

Crook J (2013) The agreement of fingertip and sternum capillary refill time in children. Arch Dis Child; 98(4):265-268

Cummings JJ, Polin RA (2016) Noninvasive respiratory support. Pediatrics;137(1):1-11. doi: 10.1542/peds.2015-3758
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Dalabih AR, Bondi SA, Harri ZL et al (2014) Aminophylline infusion for status asthmaticus in the pediatric critical care unit setting is independently associated with increased length of stay and time for symptom improvement. Pulm Pharmacol Therapeutics; 27(1):57-61
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Daniel M, Cheng A (2012) Neonatal stridor. Int J Pediatr: 859104. doi: 10.1155/2012/859104

Daniels SR (2015) Obesity, physical activity, and blood pressure. J Pediatrics; 167(1):1–3. doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2015.05.019

Daniels SR (2015) Physical activity, inflammation, and intima-media thickness. J Pediatrics; 166(4):783–787. doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2015.02.025

Darbyshire P, Cleghorn A, Downes M et al (2013) Supporting bereaved parents: a phenomenological study of a telephone intervention programme in a paediatric oncology unit. J Clin Nurs; 22(3-4):540-9. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2702.2012.04266

Dargaville PA (2012) Respiratory support in meconium aspiration syndrome: a practical guide. Int J Pediatr, 2012: 965159. doi: 10.1155/2012/965159
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Davies FCW (2013) A patient survey for emergency care designed by children, for children. Arch Dis Child; 98(4):98:247

Day CL, Ryan RM (2016) Bronchopulmonary dysplasia: old becomes new again! Pediatr Res. 2016 Sep 28. doi: 10.1038/pr.2016.201

Dayal R, Agarwal D (2016) Fever in children and fever of unknown origin. Indian J Pediatr; 83(1):38-43. doi: 10.1007/s12098-

Deakins KM (2015) Aerosol delivery with different interfaces: redirecting our focus. Respir Care; 60(9):1363-1364

De Benedictis F, Bush A (2012) Corticosteroids in respiratory diseases in children. Am J Respir Crit Care Med, 185, 1, 12-23
• in children, adverse effects, especially growth and adrenal suppression, are induced by systemic steroids, and to a lesser extent by inhaled steroids

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• similar results with bilevel and controlled noninvasive ventilation

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• the early neonatal period for extremely premature babies (particularly <28 weeks gestation) puts them at risk from hypoxaemia and from hyperoxia due to a susceptibility to the adverse effects of oxidative stress; hypoxaemia increases the risk of neuro-developmental abnormalities and retinopathy of prematurity

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• PTSD is significantly more common in families where a child has been admitted to PICU

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• no

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• a single nasal irrigation with saline solution significantly improved oxygen saturation in infants with bronchiolitis.

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• children delivered by caesarean delivery have significantly increased risk of asthma, connective tissue disorders, juvenile arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, immune deficiencies, and leukaemia

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• lack of agreement between children, parents, and practitioners

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AACN = American Association of Critical-Care Nurses
AARC = American Association for Respiratory Care
ACPRC = Association of Chartered Physiotherapists in Respiratory Care
BTS = British Thoracic Society
CPAP = continuous positive airways pressure
ICP = intracranial pressure
JAMA = Journal of American Medical Association
LRTI = lower respiratory tract infection
PEP = positive expiratory pressure
PICU = paediatric intensive care unit
PTSD = post-traumatic stress disorder
RDS = respiratory distress syndrome
BTS = British Thoracic Society