Respiratory physiology
ACID-BASE TUTORIAL - www.acid-base.com/terminology.php#SBic2


Araneda OF, Tuesta M (2012) Lung oxidative damage by hypoxia. Oxid Med Cell Longev: 856918. doi: 10.1155/2012/856918
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3433143/

Ariyaratnam P, Loubani M, Morice AH (2013) Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction in humans. Biomed Res Int; 2013;2013:623684. doi: 10.1155/2013/623684

Baumgardner JE, Hedenstierna G (2016) Ventilation/perfusion distributions revisited. Curr Opin Crit Care; 29(1): 2–7. doi: 10.1097/ACO.0000000000000269

Beate EMBS, Thorsten S (2014) Trachea: anatomy and physiology. Thorac Surg Clin; 24(1):1–5

Belavý DL, Miokovic T, Armbrecht G et al (2013) Hypertrophy in the cervical muscles and thoracic discs in bed rest? J Appl Phys; 115(5):586-596. doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.00376.2013

Benson AP (2013) A validated model of oxygen uptake and circulatory dynamic interactions at exercise onset in humans. J Appl Phys; 115(5):743–55

Bertuzzi R et al (2013) Energy system contributions during incremental exercise test. J Sports Sci Med; 12(3):454-60

Burggren WW, Christoffels VM, Crossley DA et al (2014) Comparative cardiovascular physiology: future trends, opportunities and challenges. Acta Physiologica; 210(2): 257–276. doi: 10.1111/apha.12170

Celotto AC, Ferreira LG, Capellini VK et al (2016) Acute but not chronic metabolic acidosis potentiates the acetylcholine-induced reduction in blood pressure: an endothelium-dependent effect. Braz J Med Biol Res; 49(2). pii: S0100-879X2016000200604. doi: 10.1590/1414-431X20155007
• acidosis causes hemodynamic instability

Cohen S, Janicki-Deverts D, Doyle WJ et al (2012) Chronic stress, glucocorticoid receptor resistance, inflammation, and disease risk. Proc Natl Acad Sci, 109, 16, 5995–5999
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3341031/?tool=pmcentrez

Courtney R (2009) The functions of breathing and its dysfunctions and their relationship to breathing therapy. Internat J Osteopath Med;12(3):78–85. doi:10.1016/j.ijosm.2009.04.002

Cummins EP, Keogh CE (2016) Respiratory gases and the regulation of transcription. Exp Physiol; 101(8):986-1002. doi: 10.1113/EP085715

Deshpande DA, Wang WCH, McIlmoyle EL et al (2010) Bitter taste receptors on airway smooth muscle bronchodilate by localized calcium signaling and reverse obstruction. Nature Medicine, doi:10.1038/nm.2237
www.nature.com/nm/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nm.2237.html
• bitter taste receptors have been identified in the airways which can cause relaxation of airway smooth muscle that is threefold greater than β-adrenergic drugs

D’Hulst G, Ferri A, Naslain D et al (2016) Fifteen days of 3,200 m simulated hypoxia marginally regulates markers for protein synthesis and degradation in human skeletal muscle. Hypoxia; 4:1-14
• hypoxia leads to muscle atrophy

Dickson RP, Erb-Downward JR, Martinez FJ et al (2016) The microbiome and the respiratory tract. Annu Rev Physiol; 78: 481-504. doi: 10.1146/annurev-physiol-021115-105238

Dimitriadis Z (2016) Respiratory dysfunction in patients with chronic neck pain: what is the current evidence? J Bodywork Movement Ther; 20(4):704–14
• the mechanics of respiration play a significant role in posture and stabilization of the spine

Dominelli PB, Sheel AW (2012) Experimental approaches to the study of the mechanics of breathing during exercise. Respir Physiol Neurobiol; 180(2-3):147-61. doi: 10.1016/j.resp.2011.10.005
• negative pressure achieved by inward pull from lung elastic recoil and outward pull from rib cage recoil

Dupré-Aucouturier S, Amami M, Desplanches D et al (2014) Hypoxia refines plasticity of mitochondrial respiration to repeated muscle work. Eur J Appl Physiol; 114(2): 405-417

Elstad M (2012) Respiratory variations in pulmonary and systemic blood flow in healthy humans. Acta Physiologica, 205, 3, 341–348

Fähling M, Persson PB (2012) Oxygen sensing, uptake, delivery, consumption and related disorders. Acta Physiologica, 205, 2, 191–193; doi: 10.1111/j.1748-1716.2012.02432.x

Feiner JR, Weiskopf RB (2017) Evaluating pulmonary function: an assessment of PaO2/FIO2. Crit Care Med; 45(1):e40-e48

Ferkol TW, Leigh MW (2012) Ciliopathies: The central role of cilia in a spectrum of pediatric disorders. J Pediatr, 160, 3, 372-376

Fiamma M-N, O’Connor ET, Roy A et al (2013) The essential role of peripheral respiratory chemoreceptor inputs in maintaining breathing revealed when CO2 stimulation of central chemoreceptors is diminished. J Physiol, 591, 6, 1507–1521. doi: 10.1113/jphysiol.2012.247304

Fronius M, Clauss WG, Althaus M (2012) Why do we have to move fluid to be able to breathe? Front Physiol, 3: 146
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3357553/?tool=pmcentrez

Garcia AJ et al (2013) Cardiorespiratory coupling in health and disease. Autonomic Neuroscience : Basic & Clinical; 175(0):26-37. doi: 10.1016/j.autneu.2013.02.006
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3683976/

Harrison SL, Apps L, Singh S et al (2013) "Consumed by breathing" - A critical interpretive meta-synthesis of the qualitative literature. Chronic Illn; 10(1):31-49. doi: 10.1177/1742395313493122

Henderson AC, Sá RC, Theilmann RJ et al (2013) The gravitational distribution of ventilation-perfusion ratio is more uniform in prone than supine posture in the normal human lung. J Appl Phys; 115(2):313-324. doi: 10.1152/japplphysiol.01531.2012
• perfusion is better matched with ventilation in prone

Henderson MA, Runchie C (2017) Gas, tubes and flow. Anaesth Int Care Med; 18(4):180-4
• includes the Venturi Effect, Bernoulli Principle and resistance through different tubes

Hillman DR (2013) The effect of diaphragm contraction on upper airway collapsibility. J Appl Phys; 115(2):337-345

Ikezoe T, Mori N, Nakamura M et al (2012) Effects of age and inactivity due to prolonged bed rest on atrophy of trunk muscles. Eur J Appl Physiol, 112, 11, 43-8

Janssens L, Brumagne S, McConnell AK et al (2013) Greater diaphragm fatigability in individuals with recurrent low back pain. Resp Physiol Neurobiol; 188(2):119-123
• a link between diaphragm fatigue and recurrent low back pain suggests a possible use of inspiratory muscle training for low back pain (although one author earns money from the sale of inspiratory muscle trainers)

Hughes JM (2016) Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction: clinical implications. Eur Respir J; 47(1):31-4. doi: 10.1183/13993003.01753-2015
erj.ersjournals.com/content/47/1/31

Ivanov KP (2013) Circulation in the lungs and microcirculation in the alveoli. Resp Physiol Neurobiol; 187(1):26-30

Jones CL, Minati L, Nagai Y et al (2015) Neuroanatomical substrates for the volitional regulation of heart rate. Front Psychol; 6:300. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00300.
• voluntary regulation of heart rate using biofeedback

Kang C, Ji LL (2013) Muscle immobilization and remobilization downregulates PGC-1α signaling and the mitochondrial biogenesis pathway. J Appl Phys; 115(10):1618-1625. doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.01354.2012

Kang MY, Katz I, Sapoval B (2015) A new approach to the dynamics of oxygen capture by the human lung. Respir Physiol Neurobiol; 205:109-19. doi: 10.1016/j.resp.2014.11.001

Karbing DS, Kjaergaard S, Smith BW, Espersen K, Allerød C, Andreassen S, Rees SE (2007) Variation in the PaO2/FiO2 ratio with FiO2: mathematical and experimental description, and clinical relevance. Crit Care, 11:R118
ccforum.com/content/11/6/R118
• PaO2/FiO2 quantifies effects of treatment
• PaO2/FiO2 varies with both FiO2 and SaO2
• classifies patients' gas exchange status, including definitions of ALI (27 kPa ≤ PaO2/FiO2 < 40 kPa) and ARDS (PaO2/FiO2 < 27 kPa)
(useful commentary on how this measurement can achieve a balance between accuracy and feasibility is on ccforum.com/content/11/6/182)

Karimov HN, Hosseini M, Nemati M et al (2012) Lifelong physical activity affects mini mental state exam scores in individuals over 55 years of age. J Bodywork Movement Ther, 16, 1, 230-235

Kim E, Lee H (2013) The effects of deep abdominal muscle strengthening exercises on respiratory function and lumbar stability. J Phys Ther Science, 25, 6, 663-665

Kweon M, Hong S, Jang GU et al (2013) The neural control of spinal stability muscles during different respiratory patterns. J Phys Ther Science, 25(11):1421-4

Leach RM, Treacher DF (1998) ABC of oxygen: Oxygen transport 2. Tissue hypoxia. BMJ, 317, 1370–3

Littleton SW (2015) Hypercapnia from hyperoxia in COPD: another piece of the puzzle or another puzzle entirely? Respir Care; 60(3):473-475

Lucas SJW (2013) Slow breathing as a means to improve orthostatic tolerance: a randomized sham-controlled trial. J Appl Phys; 115(2):202-211
jap.physiology.org/content/115/2/202

Magder S (2016) Volume and its relationship to cardiac output and venous return. Crit Care; 20:271. doi: 10.1186/s13054-016-1438-7

Massery M, Hagins M, Stafford R et al (2013) Effect of airway control by glottal structures on postural stability. J Appl Physiol; 115(4):483-90

Mayer OH (2015) Chest wall mini-symposium. Paed Respir Rev; 16(1):1–2. doi:10.1016/j.prrv.2014.10.011

McDevitt EA, Duggan KA, Mednick SC (2015) REM sleep rescues learning from interference. Neurobiol Learning Memory; 122:51-62. doi: 10.1016/j.nlm.2014.11.015
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4704701/

Meng H, O'Connor DP, Lee BC et al (2016) Effects of adiposity on postural control and cognition. Gait Posture; 43:31-7. doi: 10.1016/j.gaitpost.2015.10.012

Milioli G, Bosi M, Poletti V et al (2016) Sleep and respiratory sleep disorders in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.
Sleep Med Rev; 26:57-63. doi: 10.1016/j.smrv.2015.03.005

Mutolo D (2017) Brainstem mechanisms underlying the cough reflex and its regulation. Resp Physiol Neurobiol; 243: 60–76

Nakajima K, Oda E, Kanda E (2016) The association of serum sodium and chloride levels with blood pressure and estimated glomerular filtration rate. Blood Press; 25(1):51-7. doi: 10.3109/08037051.2015.1090711

Nikinmaa M (2013) What is hypoxia? Acta Physiologica, 209:1–4. doi: 10.1111/apha.12146

Noh DK, Lee JJ, You JH (2014) Diaphragm breathing movement measurement using ultrasound and radiographic imaging: a concurrent validity. Biomed Mater Eng; 24(1):947-52. doi: 10.3233/BME-130889

Persson AB, Persson PB (2014) Sleep. Acta Physiologica; 210(2): 229–230. doi: 10.1111/apha.12216

Pierson DJ (2009) The physiology of dinosaurs: circulatory and respiratory function in the largest animals ever to walk the earth. Respir Care, 54, 7, 887-911
dinosaur2009-blog.blogspot.com/2009/08/physiology-of-dinosaurs-circulatory-and.html
• long-necked dinosaurs may have needed (a) a BP ten times that of the giraffe, or auxiliary cervical hearts or blood vessels acting as siphons, and (b) an avian respiratory system which avoids the constraints of dead space

Piper AJ, Grunstein R (2010) Big breathing: the complex interaction of obesity, hypoventilation, weight loss, and respiratory function. J Appl Physiol, 108,199-205
jap.physiology.org/cgi/content/abstract/108/1/199
• obesity places a significant load on the respiratory system, affecting lung volumes, respiratory muscle function, work of breathing, and ventilatory control

Pitts T, Rose MJ, Mortensen AN et al (2013) Coordination of cough and swallow: A meta-behavioral response to aspiration. Resp Physiol Neurobiol; 189(3):543-551

Ramirez J-M (2014) The integrative role of the sigh in psychology, physiology, pathology, and neurobiology. Progress in Brain Research; 209:91–129. doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-444-63274-6.00006-0
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4427060/

Randell SH, Boucher RC (2006) Effective mucus clearance is essential for respiratory health. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol, 35, 1, 20–28. doi: 10.1165/rcmb.2006-0082SF
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2658694/?tool=pmcentrez

Rowan SC, Keane MP, Gaine S et al (2016) Hypoxic pulmonary hypertension in chronic lung diseases: novel vasoconstrictor pathways. Lancet Respir Med; 4(3):225-36. doi: 10.1016/S2213-2600(15)00517-2

Salomoni S, van den Hoorn W, Hodges P (2016) Breathing and singing: objective characterization of breathing patterns in classical singers. PLoS ONE; 11(5):e0155084. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0155084.
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4861272/

Sauvet F, Leftheriotis G (2010) Effect of acute sleep deprivation on vascular function in healthy subjects. J Appl Physiol, 108, 68-75
jap.physiology.org/cgi/content/abstract/108/1/68
• sleep disorders induce inflammation and sympathetic activation, inducing endothelial dysfunction and increased risk of cardiovascular disease

Smith MT, Finan PH (2013) Sleep, respiration, and pain: a potential nexus for chronic pain risk? Anesthesiology; 119(5):1011–13

Smith MD, Russell A, Hodges PW (2006) Disorders of breathing and continence have a stronger association with back pain than obesity and physical activity. Austr J Physiother, 52, 11-16
• dual role of the diaphragm and transverses abdominis (both breathing and posture) explains how patients with a fatigued diaphragm are unable to provide adequate support for their spine.

Sommer N, Strielkov I, Pak O et al (2016) Oxygen sensing and signal transduction in hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction. Eur Respir J; 47(1):288-303. doi: 10.1183/13993003.00945-2015

Strohl KP, Thomas AJ (1998) Breathlessness, anxiety, and respiratory physiology. Psychosom Med, 60, 680-1.
www.psychosomaticmedicine.org/cgi/reprint/60/6/680.pdf

Taher M, Leen WG, Wevers RA et al (2016) Lactate and its many faces. Eur J Paediatr Neurol; 20(1):3-10. doi: 10.1016/j.ejpn.2015.09.008

Tánczos K (2013) The oxygen supply-demand balance: a monitoring challenge. Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol; 27(2):201-7

Teboul JL, Scheeren T (2017) Understanding the Haldane effect. Int Care Med; 43(1):91-93. doi: 10.1007/s00134-016-4261-3

Townsend P, Webster NR (2000) Why is the patient still hypoxic despite being ventilated? J Roy Coll Surg Edinburgh, 45, 235-40
www.rcsed.ac.uk/journal/vol45%5F4/4540026.htm
• oxygen cascade, oxygen delivery, oxygen stores

Urfy MZ, Suarez JI (2014) Breathing and the nervous system. Handb Clin Neurol; 119:241-50. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-7020-4086-3.00017-5

Uva B, Aliverti A, Bovio D et al (2016) The "abdominal circulatory pump": an auxiliary heart during exercise? Front Physiol; 6:411. doi: 10.3389/fphys.2015.00411
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4703783/

Vaschillo EG, Vaschillo B, Buckman JF et al (2015) The effects of sighing on the cardiovascular system. Biological Psychology; 106:86-95. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsycho.2015.02.007.

Walker DJ, Farquharson F, Klenze H et al (2016) Diaphragmatic fatigue during inspiratory muscle loading in normoxia and hypoxia. Respir Physiol Neurobiol; 227:1-8. doi: 10.1016/j.resp.2016.01.006
• progression of diaphragmatic fatigue during inspiratory muscle loading differs between normoxia and normobaric hypoxia: in the former, it follows an exponential decay, whereas during hypoxia, it follows a linear decline.

Wagner PD (2015) The physiological basis of pulmonary gas exchange: implications for clinical interpretation of arterial blood gases. Eur Respir J; 45(1):227-43. doi: 10.1183/09031936.00039214

Walker DJ, Farquharson F, Klenze H et al (2016) Diaphragmatic fatigue during inspiratory muscle loading in normoxia and hypoxia. Respir Physiol Neurobiol; 227:1-8. doi: 10.1016/j.resp.2016.01.006
• progression of diaphragmatic fatigue during normoxia follows an exponential decay, whereas during hypoxia it follows a linear decline.

Watson RA, Pride NB (2005) Postural changes in lung volumes and respiratory resistance in subjects with obesity. J Appl Physiol, 98, 512-517

Wolff CB, Collier DJ, Shah M et al (2016) A discussion on the regulation of blood flow and pressure. Adv Exp Med Biol; 876:129-35. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4939-3023-4_16

Zampieri FG, Kellum JA, Park M et al (2014) Relationship between acid-base status and inflammation in the critically ill. Crit Care; 18: R154



AACN = American Association of Critical Care Nurses
ACPRC = Association of Chartered Physiotherapists in Respiratory Care
ALI = acute lung injury
ARDS = acute respiratory distress syndrome
FRC = functional residual capacity.