Effects of smoking.
NICE Guidelines on harm reduction (2015)

Statistics on Smoking (2015)

Agrawal S (2016) Treating tobacco dependence. Chr Respir Dis; 13(2)89. doi: 10.1177/1479972316647179

Al-Obaidi S, Al-Zoabi BA, Chowdhury RI, Al-Shuwai N (2003) Fatigue susceptibility of the lumbar extensor muscles among smokers. Physiotherapy, 89, 238-48
• weakness of lumbar extensors may be the cause of back injury in smokers

Anderson ME (2005) Sudden infant death syndrome and prenatal maternal smoking. BMC Med, 3, 4
• smoking doubles the incidence of sudden infant death syndrome

Andersson HI (1998) Widespread musculoskeletal chronic pain associated with smoking. Scand J Rehab Med, 30, 185-91
• smoking increases low back pain and musculoskeletal pain

Assimacopoulos EM, Liao J, Heard JP et al (2016) The national incidence and resource utilization of burn injuries sustained while smoking on home oxygen therapy. J Burn Care Res; 37(1):25-31. doi: 10.1097/BCR.0000000000000291
• risk of burn injury from smoking with home oxygen

Averns HL (1996) Smoking and outcome in ankylosing spondylitis. Scand J Rheumatol, 25, 138-42.

Bakakos P, Kostikas K, Loukides S (2016) Smoking asthma phenotype: diagnostic and management challenges. Curr Opin Pulm Med; 22(1):53-8. doi: 10.1097/MCP.0000000000000221
• smoking reduces the efficacy of steroids in asthma

Baker F, Ainsworth SR, Dye JT (2000) Health risks associated with cigar smoking. J Am Med Ass, 284, 735-40
• cigar smoke contains more toxic chemicals and carcinogens than cigarette smoke

Bao W, Michels KB, Tobias DK et al (2016) Parental smoking during pregnancy and the risk of gestational diabetes in the daughter. Int J Epidemiol. Jan 9. pii: dyv334
• smoking while pregnant increases the risk of gestational diabetes in daughters

Baron JA, Farahmand BY, Weiderpass E (2001) Cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption and risk of hip fracture in women. Arch Int Med, 161, 983-8
• smoking doubles the risk of hip fracture in postmenopausal women

Baumgarten KM, Gerlach D, Galatz LM et al (2010) Cigarette smoking increases the risk for rotator cuff tears. Clin Orthop Relat Res, 468, 6, 1534–41

Behl M, Rao D, Aagaard K et al (2013) Evaluation of the association between maternal smoking, childhood obesity, and metabolic disorders: a national toxicology program workshop review. Environ Health Perspect, 121, 2, 170–180. doi: 10.1289/ehp.1205404
• smoking during pregnancy increases the risk of future obesity in the offspring

Bense (1992) Spontaneous pneumothorax. Chest, 101, 891-2
• smoking increases the risk of pneumothorax 13-fold

Beratis NG (1996) Increased BP in neonates and infants whose mothers smoked during pregnancy. J Pediatr, 128, 806-12.

Blair (1996) Smoking and the sudden infant death syndrome. BMJ, 313, 195-8
• smoking increases cot deaths x 3-4
• 60% of perinatal deaths are to attributed to tobacco

Bluman LG, Mosca L, Newman N (1998) Preoperative smoking and postoperative pulmonary complications. Chest, 113, 883-9
• smoking increases postop complications six-fold

BMA (2015) Promoting a tobacco-free society. British Medical Association, London

BMA (2007) Breaking the cycle of children's exposure to tobacco smoke. British Medical Association, London

Carpenter MJ, Jardin BF, Burris JL et al (2013) Clinical strategies to enhance the efficacy of nicotine replacement therapy for smoking cessation: a review of the literature. Drugs; 73(5):407-426

Charlton A, White D (1996) Smoking and menstrual problems in 16-year-olds. J Roy Soc Health (1996) 89, 193-5.
• just one cigarette a day can cause menstrual problems

Chao A (2000) Cigarette smoking and colorectal cancer. J Nat Cancer Institute, 92, 23, 1888-96
• smoking increases risk of colorectal cancer

Chiang H-L, Chia Y-Y, Lin H-S et al (2016) The implications of tobacco smoking on acute postoperative pain: a prospective observational study. Pain Res Management. 2016;2016:9432493. doi:10.1155/2016/9432493.
• smoking increases postoperative pain in males

Clement ND, Goudie EB, Brooksbank AJ et al (2016) Smoking status and the Disabilities of the Arm Shoulder and Hand score are early predictors of symptomatic nonunion of displaced midshaft fractures of the clavicle. Bone Joint J; 98-B(1):125-30. doi: 10.1302/0301-620X.98B1.36260

Correa DM, Tinker SC, Cragan JD et al (2015) Maternal cigarette smoking and congenital heart defects. J Pediatrics; 166(4):801–804. doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2015.01.013

Couriel JM (1994) Passive smoking and health of children. Thorax, 49, 731-34
• maternal smoking increases miscarriages, stillbirths, cot-deaths and glue ear

Cox B, Martens E, Nemery B et al (2013) Impact of a stepwise introduction of smoke-free legislation on the rate of preterm births: analysis of routinely collected birth data. BMJ, 346, f441

Dixit S, Pletcher MJ, Vittinghoff E et al (2016) Secondhand smoke and atrial fibrillation: data from the Health eHeart Study. Heart Rhythm; 13(1):3-9. doi: 10.1016/j.hrthm.2015.08.004
• secondhand smoke exposure during gestational development and during childhood was associated with having AF later in life

Duby JC (2015) Another reason to avoid second-hand smoke. J Pediatrics; 167(2):224–5. doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2015.04.049
• smoking during pregnancy increases the risks of lower birth weight and sudden infant death syndrome

Evans JR, Fletcher AE (2005) 28,000 cases of age related macular degeneration causing visual loss in people aged 75 years and above may be attributable to smoking. Brit J Ophthal, 89, 550-3
• smoking doubles the risk of developing age-related macular degeneration

Freire APC, Ramos D, Leite MR et al (2016) Influence of time and frequency of passive smoking exposure on mucociliary clearance and the autonomic nervous system. Respir Care; 61(4):453-461

Feldman DE (1999) Smoking. Spine, 24, 2492-6
• smoking increases the incidence of back pain

Fu SS, Ryn MV, Nelson D et al (2016) Proactive tobacco treatment offering free nicotine replacement therapy and telephone counselling for socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers: a randomised clinical trial. Thorax; 71(5):446-453. doi: 10.1136/thoraxjnl-2015-207904

Gan WQ, Man SFP, Sin DD (2005) Effects of inhaled corticosteroids on sputum cell counts in stable COPD. BMC Pulm Med, 5, 3
• smoking attenuates the benefits of steroids

Giovanna E. Carpagnano, Cinzia Ruggieri et al (2016) Is the exhaled breath temperature sensitive to cigarette smoking? COPD; 13(5): 642-646. doi: 10.3109/15412555.2016.1143458
• yes

Gunnell D, Irvine D, Davies C (2009) Varenicline and suicidal behaviour. Br Med J, 339, 3805
• possible connection between Champix and mental ill-health problems
Haas & Haas (1990) The Chronic Bronchitis & Emphysema Handbook, John Wiley
• smoking is 6-8 times more addictive than alcohol

Hatsukami D (2004) Effects of sustained-release bupropion among persons interested in reducing but not quitting smoking. Am J Med, 116, 151-157
• for smokers who feel they cannot stop, bupropion can increase short-term abstinence rates

Heath J et al (2017) Tobacco-Cessation Interventions and Attributes of Individual and Organizational Excellence in Acute Care. Am J Crit Care, 26(1):53-61

Hernαn MA (2005) Cigarette smoking and the progression of multiple sclerosis. Brain, 128, 1461-5
• smoking is associated with increased risk of MS, and increases the risk of transforming a relapsing-remitting MS into progressive MS

Hill RD (2003) Cigarette smoking and cognitive performance in healthy Swedish adults. Age and Ageing, 32, 548-50

Holbrook BD (2016) The effects of nicotine on human fetal development. Birth Defects Res C Embryo Today; 108(2):181-192. doi: 10.1002/bdrc.21128
smoking impairs cognition
• pregnant women who smoke can leave their children with cardiorespiratory, neurologic, academic and behavioral problems

Holbrook BD (2016) The effects of nicotine on human fetal development. Birth Defects Res C Embryo Today; 108(2):181-192. doi: 10.1002/bdrc.21128

Huang W, Han Z, Liu J et al (2016) Risk factors for recurrent lumbar disc herniation: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Medicine (Baltimore); 95(2):e2378
• smoking is associated with lumbar disc herniation

Ito JT, Ramos D, Lima FF (2015) Nasal mucociliary clearance in subjects with COPD after smoking cessation. Respir Care; 60(3):399-405

Jacob NT, Lockner JW, Schlosburg JE et al (2016) Investigations of enantiopure nicotine haptens using an adjuvanting carrier in anti-nicotine vaccine development. J Med Chem; 59(6):2523-9. doi: 10.1021/acs.jmedchem.5b01676

Jha P, Ramasundarahettige C, Landsman V et al (2013) 21st-Century hazards of smoking and benefits of cessation in the United States. N Engl J Med; 368:341-350. doi: 10.1056/NEJMsa1211128

Jiang B, He Y, Zuo F, Wu L et al (2016) Effectiveness of varenicline and counselling for smoking cessation in an observational cohort study in China. BMJ Open; 6(1):e009381. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2015-009381

Kahn JC (2006) Smoking and age related macular degeneration. Br J Ophthalmol, 90, 75-80
• association between active and passive smoking with age related macular degeneration

Kalkhoran S, Glantz SA (2016) E-cigarettes and smoking cessation in real-world and clinical settings: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Respir Med; 4(2):116–128. doi: dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2213-2600(15)00521-4
• e-cigarettes have so far proved unhelpful

Kamboj A, Spiller HA, Casavant MJ et al (2016) Pediatric exposure to e-cigarettes, nicotine, and tobacco products in the United States. Pediatrics;137(6). pii: e20160041. doi: 10.1542/peds.2016-0041
• exposure to e-cigarettes is more than twice as damaging to children as exposure to cigarettes

Karlin AM, McMahon MA (2003) Hypoxic-ischemic brain injury in a child secondary to acute nicotine intoxication due to ingestion. Arch Phys Med Rehab, 84, E29

Kδllberg H, Ding B, Padyukov L et al (2011) Smoking is a major preventable risk factor for rheumatoid arthritis: estimations of risks after various exposures to cigarette smoke. Ann Rheum Dis, 70, 3, 508–11.

King DP, Paciga S, Pickering E et al (2012) Smoking cessation pharmacogenetics: analysis of varenicline and bupropion in placebo-controlled clinical trials. Neuropsychopharmacol, 37, 3, 641–650

Kubota M, Tanno-Nakanishi M, Yamada S et al (2011) Effect of smoking on subgingival microflora of patients with periodontitis in Japan. BMC Oral Health, 11, 1

Kwon Y, Norby FL, Jensen PN et al (2016) Association of smoking, alcohol, and obesity with cardiovascular death and ischemic stroke in atrial fibrillation: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study and Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS). PLoS One; 11(1):e0147065. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0147065

Lam DCL, Minna JD (2012) How do we safely get people to stop smoking? Cancer Prev Res (Phila), 4, 11, 1724–1727

Leberl M, Kratzer A, Taraseviciene-Stewart L (2013) Tobacco smoke induced COPD/emphysema in the animal model - are we all on the same page? Front Physiol; 4:91. doi: 10.3389/fphys.2013.00091

Leslie FM (2013) Multigenerational epigenetic effects of nicotine on lung function. BMC Med, 11, 27. doi:10.1186/1741-7015-11-27
• the grandchildren of smokers are more likely to develop asthma

Louhelainen N (2010) Elevation of sputum matrix metalloproteinase-9 persists up to 6 months after smoking cessation. BMC Pulm Med, 10, 13, doi:10.1186/1471-2466-10-13
• after stopping smoking, some inflammatory products linger for six months, which may contribute to ongoing lung damage that is typical of COPD

Maga M, Janik MK, Wachsmann A et al (2017) Influence of air pollution on exhaled carbon monoxide levels in smokers and non-smokers. Environ Res; 152:496-502. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2016.09.004

Magnus MC, Hεberg SE, Karlstad Ψ et al (2015) Grandmother's smoking when pregnant with the mother and asthma in the grandchild: the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. Thorax; (70):237-43. doi:10.1136/thoraxjnl-2014-206438
• the grandchildren of smokers are more likely to develop asthma independent of the mother's smoking status

Manja V, Saugstad OD, Lakshminrusimha S et al (2017) Oxygen saturation targets in preterm infants and outcomes at 18–24 months: a systematic review. Pediatrics; 139(1): pii: e20161609. doi: 10.1542/peds.2016-1609
• for preterms, a target saturation of 89-96% is suggested

McCormick MC, Litt JS (2017) The outcomes of very preterm infants: is it time to ask different questions? . Pediatrics; 139(1): pii: e20161694. doi: 10.1542/peds.2016-1694

McQueen N, Partington EJ, Harrington KF et al (2016) Smoking cessation and electronic cigarette use among head and neck cancer patients. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg; 154(1):73-9. doi: 10.1177/0194599815613279

Mehari A, Weir NA, Gillum RF (2014) Gender and the association of smoking with sleep quantity and quality in American adults. Women Health; 54(1):1-14. doi: 10.1080/03630242.2013.858097
• smoking impairs sleep

Milne A (1998) Smoking: The Inside Story. Woodside, Stafford
• light-hearted book packed with ammunition to dissuade smokers

Mesquita R, Gonηalves CG, Hayashi D et al (2015) Smoking status and its relationship with exercise capacity, physical activity in daily life and quality of life in physically independent, elderly individuals. Physiotherapy; 101(1):55-61
• tobacco exposure is associated with worse mental health and exercise capacity in elders.

Mulder RT (2005) Depression and COPD: is smoking a link? Chronic Resp Dis, 9, 2, 3

Murdzoska J (2010) In utero smoke exposure and role of maternal and infant glutathione s-transferase genes on airway responsiveness and lung function in infancy. Am J Respir Crit Care Med, 181, 1, 64-72
• smoking during pregnancy increases airway hyperreactivity in infants.

Musallam KM, Rosendaal FR, Zaatari G et al (2013) Smoking and the risk of mortality and vascular and respiratory events in patients undergoing major surgery. JAMA Surg; 148(8):755-62. doi: 10.1001/jamasurg.2013.2360

Nakanishi N (2000) Cigarette smoking and risk for impaired fasting glucose and type 2 diabetes in middle-aged Japanese men. Ann Int Med, 133, 183-91
• smoking increases the risk of diabetes

Nicita-Mauro V (2008) Smoking, health and ageing. Immun Ageing, 5, 10

Nolan MB, Martin DP, Thompson R et al (2017) Association between smoking status, preoperative exhaled carbon monoxide levels, and postoperative surgical site infection in patients undergoing elective surgery. JAMA Surg; 152(5):476-483. doi: 10.1001/jamasurg.2016.5704

Olds (1994) Intellectual impairment in children of women who smoke cigarettes during pregnancy. Pediatrics, 93, 221-27.

Patel BD et al (2006) Smoking related COPD and facial wrinkling: is there a common susceptibility? Thorax, 61, 568-71.
• cigarette smoking causes accelerated facial wrinkling

Piermarocchi S, Tognetto D, Piermarocchi R et al (2016) Risk factors and age-related macular degeneration in a mediterranean-basin population: the PAMDI (Prevalence of Age-Related Macular Degeneration in Italy) Study - Report 2. Ophthalmic Res; 55(3):111-118
• smoking increases the risk of developing macular degeneration

Rafiq R, Shah IA, Bhat GA et al (2016) Secondhand smoking and the risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in a high incidence region, Kashmir, India: a case-control-observational study. Medicine (Baltimore); 95(1):e2340. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000002340.

Ramirez-Sarmiento A (2004) Cigarette smoke as a cause of injury in muscle cells: effects on the diaphragm and quadriceps muscles. Eur Respir J, 24: Suppl. 48, 234s
• smoking damages the diaphragm and quadriceps

Reed SC (2017) Nicotine produces long-term increases in cocaine reinforcement in adolescent but not adult rats. Brain Res; 1654(B):165–170

Ruprecht AA, De Marco C, Pozzi P et al (2016) Outdoor second-hand cigarette smoke significantly affects air quality. Eur Respir J; 48(3):918-20. doi: 10.1183/13993003.00064-2016

Samczyński Z, Dybczyński RS, Polkowska-Motrenko H et al (2012) Two new reference materials based on tobacco leaves: certification for over a dozen of toxic and essential elements. ScientificWorldJournal; 2012: 216380. doi: 10.1100/2012/216380
• 5000 chemicals contained in tobacco smoke

Şanlı A, Bekmez E, Yıldız G et al (2016) Relationship between smoking and otorhinolaryngological symptoms. Kulak Burun Bogaz Ihtis Derg; 26(1):28-33. doi: 10.5606/kbbihtisas.2016.87059
• smoking causes cough, dyspnoea, reflux, dry throat, irritable upper airway, taste and smell disorders, bad breath, toothache, nasal congestion, snoring and nasal discharge

Schauer GL, Wheaton AG, Malarcher AM et al (2016) Health-care provider screening and advice for smoking cessation among smokers with and without COPD: 2009-2010 National Adult Tobacco Survey. Chest; 149(3):676-84. doi: 10.1378/chest.14-2965
• the 5As (ask, advise, assess, assist, arrange)

Scherphof CS, van den Eijnden RJ, Engels RC et al (2014) Short-term efficacy of nicotine replacement therapy for smoking cessation in adolescents: a randomized controlled trial.
J Subst Abuse Treat; 46(2):120-7. doi: 10.1016/j.jsat.2013.08.008

Schlam TR, Fiore MC, Smith SS et al (2016) Comparative effectiveness of intervention components for producing long-term abstinence from smoking: a factorial screening experiment. Addiction; 111(1):142-55. doi: 10.1111/add.13153
• benefits of 26 weeks of nicotine patches, nicotine gum and phone support

Shiri R (2010) The association between smoking and low back pain: a meta-analysis. Am J Med, 123, 1, 87.e7-87.e35

Sharif-Kashani B, Shahabi P, Mandegar MH et al (2016) Smoking and wound complications after coronary artery bypass grafting. J Surg Res; 200(2):743-8. doi: 10.1016/j.jss.2015.09.017
• smoking may contribute to the disturbances of wound healing, especially wound dehiscence, in post-CABG patients

Siqueira LM (2017) Nicotine and tobacco as substances of abuse in children and adolescents. Pediatrics; 139(1): pii: e20163436. doi: 10.1542/peds.2016-3436

Sundar IK, Ahmad T, Yao H et al (2015) Influenza A virus-dependent remodeling of pulmonary clock function in a mouse model of COPD. Scientific Reports; 4:9927. doi: 10.1038/srep09927.
• active and passive smoking upset the circadian rhythm

Swanson MW (2014) Smoking deception and age-related macular degeneration. Optom Vis Sci; 91(8):865-71. doi: 10.1097/OPX.0000000000000315
• smoking increases the risk of developing macular degeneration

Schwartz AG, Cote ML (2016) Epidemiology of lung cancer. Adv Exp Med Biol; 893:21-41. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-24223-1_2

Sohn HS, Kim H, Song IS et al (2015) Evidence supporting the need for considering the effects of smoking on drug disposition and effectiveness in medication practices: a systematic narrative review. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther; 53(8):621-34. doi: 10.5414/CP202260
• smoking increases dosage requirements for corticosteroids and theophylline

Vettore MV, Faerstein E, Baker SR (2016) Social position, social ties and adult's oral health: 13 year cohort study. J Dent; 44:50-6. doi: 10.1016/j.jdent.2015.12.004
• smoking damages teeth

Walele T, Sharma G, Savioz R et al (2016) A randomised, crossover study on an electronic vapour product, a nicotine inhalator and a conventional cigarette. Part B: Safety and subjective effects. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol; 74:193-9. doi: 10.1016/j.yrtph.2015.12.004

Werler MM, Yazdy MM, Kasser JR et al (2015) Maternal cigarette, alcohol, and coffee consumption in relation to risk of clubfoot. paediatric and perinatal epidemiology. Paed Perinatal Epidemiol; 29(1):3–10. doi: 10.1111/ppe.12163
• smoking during pregnancy increases the risk of club foot

Westreich D, Cates J, Cohen M et al (2017) Smoking, HIV, and risk of pregnancy loss. AIDS; 31(4):553-560. doi: 10.1097/QAD.0000000000001342
• smoking during pregnancy increases the risk of stillbirth

Yang J, Yu HM, Zhou XD et al (2016) Cigarette smoke induces mucin hypersecretion and inflammatory response through the p66shc adaptor protein-mediated mechanism in human bronchial epithelial cells. Mol Immunol; 69:86-98. doi: 10.1016/j.molimm.2015.11.002
• smoking causes inflammatory damage and excess mucus production

Yang Z, Zhuan B, Yan Y et al (2016) Identification of gene markers in the development of smoking-induced lung cancer. Gene; 576(1 Pt 3):451-7. doi: 10.1016/j.gene.2015.10.060

Yu Y-B, Liao Y-W, Su K-H et al (2012) Prior exercise training alleviates the lung inflammation induced by subsequent exposure to environmental cigarette smoke. Acta Physiologica, 205, 4, 532–54

Zhang J, Jameson K, Sayer AA et al (2016) Accumulation of risk factors associated with poor bone health in older adults. Arch Osteoporos; 11(1):3. doi: 10.1007/s11657-015-0250-3

Zou W, Liu S, Hu J et al (2016) Nicotine reduces the levels of surfactant proteins A and D via Wnt/β-catenin and PKC signaling in human airway epithelial cells. Resp Physiol Neurobiol; 221:1-10
• smoking causes airway remodeling

Zvolensky MJ (2010) Chronic musculoskeletal pain and cigarette smoking among a representative sample of Canadian adolescents and adults. Addict Behav, 35, 11, 1008–12.

CABG = coronary artery bypass graft
JAMA = Journal of the American Medical Association
MI = myocardial infarction
MS = multiple sclerosis