Pre- and postoperative physiotherapy
Agostini PJ, Naidu B, Rajesh P et al (2014) Potentially modifiable factors contribute to limitation in physical activity following thoracotomy and lung resection: a prospective observational study. J Cardiothoracic Surgery; 9:128. doi: 10.1186/1749-8090-9-128.

Al Jaaly E, Fiorentino F, Reeves BC et al (2013) Effect of adding postoperative noninvasive ventilation to usual care to prevent pulmonary complications in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting: a randomized controlled trial. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg; 146(4):912-8. doi: 10.1016/j.jtcvs.2013.03.014

Anderson CM, Overend TJ, Godwin J Ambulation after Deep Vein Thrombosis: A Systematic Review. Physiotherapy Canada; 61(3):133-140. doi:10.3138/physio.61.3.133

Baddeley RA (2016) Physiotherapy for enhanced recovery in thoracic surgery. J Thoracic Dis; 8(Suppl 1):S107-S110. doi: 10.3978/j.issn.2072-1439.2015.12.02.

Bal-Bocheńska MA (2016) Evaluation of the effects of rehabilitation after surgery using the Ravitch and Nuss methods: a case study. Kardiochirurgia i Torakochirurgia Polska (Polish Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery); 13(1):72-77. doi: 10.5114/kitp.2016.58973.

Banasik (1996) Effect of lateral position on arterial and venous blood gases in postoperative cardiac surgery patients. Am J Crit Care, 5, 121-6
• right-side-lying is better than left-side-lying for blood gases after heart surgery

Basse L (2000) A clinical pathway to accelerate recovery after colonic resection. Ann Surg, 232, 51-7
• post-op rehab reduces hospital stay

Boden I, Browning L, Skinner EH et al (2016) The LIPPSMAck POP (Lung Infection Prevention Post Surgery - Major Abdominal - with Pre-Operative Physiotherapy) trial: study protocol for a multi-centre randomised controlled trial. Trials; 16:573. doi: 10.1186/s13063-015-1090-6.

Bonde P, Mc Manus K, McAnespie M et al (2002) Lung surgery: identifying the subgroup at risk for sputum retention. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg, 22, 18-22
• pre-operatively, lung surgery patients at risk of sputum retention can be predicted by one of: current smokers, history of COPD, CVA, or ischaemic heart disease, and absence of regional analgesia

Branson RD (2013) The scientific basis for postoperative respiratory care. Respir Care; 58(11):1974-84

Brasher PA, McClelland KH, Denehy L (2003) Does removal of deep breathing exercises from a physiotherapy programme alter patient outcomes? Austr J Physiother, 49, 165-73
• breathing exercises appear unnecessary after cardiac surgery

Brocki BC, Andreasen JJ, Langer D et al (2016) Postoperative inspiratory muscle training in addition to breathing exercises and early mobilization improves oxygenation in high-risk patients after lung cancer surgery: a randomized controlled trial. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg; 49(5):1483-91. doi: 10.1093/ejcts/ezv359

Brooks D, Crowe J, Kelsey CJ et al (2001) A clinical practice guideline on peri-operative cardiorespiratory physical therapy. Physiother Canada, 53, 1, 9-25.
• translates evidence into practice

Browning L, Denehy L, Scholes RL (2007) The quantity of early upright mobilisation performed following upper abdominal surgery is low: an observational study. Austr J Physiotherapy, 53, 1, 47-52

Brunelli A, Monteverde M, Al Refai M et al (2004) Stair climbing test as a predictor of cardiopulmonary complications after pulmonary lobectomy in the elderly. Ann Thorac Surg, 77, 266-70
• a symptom-limited stair climbing test accurately predicts cardiopulmonary complications

Bruton A, Donovan H, Langridge E (2009) The Southampton physiotherapy post-operative screening tool. ACPRC Journal, 41, 9-15

Carli F, Gillis C, Scheede-Bergdahl C (2017) Promoting a culture of prehabilitation for the surgical cancer patient. Acta Oncol; 56(2):128-133. doi: 10.1080/0284186X.2016.1266081

Cereda M, Neligan PJ, Reed AJ (2013) Noninvasive respiratory support in the perioperative period. Curr Opin Anaesthesiol; 26(2):134-40. doi: 10.1097/ACO.0b013e32835e8002.

Cheifetz O, Lucy D, Overend TJ (2010) The effect of abdominal support on functional outcomes in patients following major abdominal surgery. Physiother Can, 62, 3, 242-53

Choi WW, Au TK, Fung YK et al (2013) Efficacy of a perioperative physiotherapy care programme for patients undergoing abdominal surgery in Tseung Kwan O Hospital. Hong Kong Physiother J, 31(2):102-103

Coen PM, Goodpaster BH (2016) A role for exercise after bariatric surgery? Diabetes Obes Metab; 18(1):16-23. doi: 10.1111/dom.12545

Cordeiro AL, Melo TA, Neves D et al (2016) Inspiratory muscle training and functional capacity in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Braz J Cardiovasc Surg; 31(2):140-4. doi: 10.5935/1678-9741.20160035

Czyżewski P, Hryciuk D, Dąbek A et al (2016) Assessment of abdominal belts impact on the lungs ventilation and their application in early physiotherapy after major abdominal surgery - prospective trial. Pol Przegl Chir; 88(4):202-8. doi: 10.1515/pjs-2016-0052

Diane J (2007) Exercise, quality of life and symptoms in men and women five to six years after coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Heart Lung, 36, 6, 387-97
• regular exercise improves on-going quality of life 5 to 6 years after CABG

Dhesi JK, Swart M (2016) Specialist pre-operative assessment clinics. Anaesthesia; 71(S1):3–8. doi: 10.1111/anae.13307
• the pre-assessment clinic should include rehabilitation and discharge planning

Dronkers J (2008) Prevention of pulmonary complications after upper abdominal surgery by preoperative IMT. Clin Rehabil, 22, 134-42
• preoperative inspiratory muscle training reduces atelectasis in patients having elective abdominal aortic aneurysm surgery

Durrant V, Moore K (2004) Early mobilisation of post-surgical patients. ACPRC Journal, 36, 32-6
• review of evidence base and application of post-op mobilisation

Ebeo CT et al (2002) The effect of BiPAP on postoperative pulmonary function following gastric surgery for obesity. Respir Med, 96, 672-6
• postop BiPAP for obese patients improves lung function but not complication rate

Edvardsen E, Skjønsberg OH, Holme I et al (2015) High-intensity training following lung cancer surgery: a randomised controlled trial. Thorax; 70:244-250. doi:10.1136/thoraxjnl-2014-205944
• high-intensity endurance and strength training after lung cancer surgery is well tolerated and improves fitness and quality of life

Faintuch J (2013) Rehabilitation needs after bariatric surgery. Europ J Phys Rehab Med, 49(3): 431-7

Fernandes SC da S, dos Santos RS, Giovanetti EA et al (2016) Impact of respiratory therapy in vital capacity and functionality of patients undergoing abdominal surgery. Einstein; 14(2):202-207. doi: 10.1590/S1679-45082016AO3398.

Genç A, Ikiz AO, Güneri EA, 2008. Effect of deep breathing exercises on oxygenation after major head and neck surgery. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg.139(2):281-5. doi: 10.1016/j.otohns.2008.04.025.

Halm MA (2015) East meets West: effects of massage on the experience of cardiac surgery patients. Am J Crit Care; 24:176-180. doi:10.4037/ajcc2015947

Hansen D, Roijakkers R, Jacvkmaert L (2017) Compromised cardiopulmonary exercise capacity in patients early after endoscopic atraumatic coronary artery bypass graft: implications for rehabilitation. Am J Phys Med Rehabil; 96(2):84–92

Hatt K, Kinback NC, Shah A et al (2016) A review of lung transplantation and its implications for the acute rehabilitation team. PM R; S1934-1482(16)30971-6. doi: 10.1016/j.pmrj.2016.09.013

Hijazi Y, Gondal U, Aziz O (2017) A systematic review of prehabilitation programs in abdominal cancer surgery. Int J Surg; 39:156-162. doi: 10.1016/j.ijsu.2017.01.111

Hoffman AJ, Brintnall RA, Brown JK et al (2014) Too sick not to exercise: using a 6-week, home-based exercise intervention for cancer-related fatigue self-management for postsurgical non-small cell lung cancer patients. Cancer Nurs; 36(3):175-88. doi: 10.1097/NCC.0b013e31826c7763.
• postoperative home-based exercise can reduce fatigue

Hulzebos EH, Smit Y, Helders PP et al (2013) Preoperative physical therapy for elective cardiac surgery patients. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. Nov 14;11:CD010118. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD010118.pub2.

Imperatori A, Grande A, Castiglioni M et al (2016) Chest pain control with kinesiology taping after lobectomy for lung cancer: initial results of a randomized placebo-controlled study. Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg; 23(2):223-30. doi: 10.1093/icvts/ivw110
• postoperative chest pain reduced by kinesiology taping at the chest access site pain trigger point, the ipsilateral deltoid/trapezius and lower anterior chest

Jarski RW (2000) The effectiveness of osteopathic manipulative treatment following surgery. Alt Therapies, 6, 5, 77-81
• outcome: stairs done 20% earlier, walking 43% further, less analgesia, shorter hospital stays than control group

Kawamura H (1999) The effects of pre-and-postoperative contralateral TENS for phantom limb pain in amputees. WCPT Proceedings, p.61
• TENS to remaining limb given to sites corresponding to painful sites on amputated limb

Keeratichananont W, Thanadetsuntorn C, Keeratichananont S (2016) Value of preoperative 6-minute walk test for predicting postoperative pulmonary complications. Ther Adv Respir Dis; 10(1):18-25. doi: 10.1177/1753465815615509

Lugg ST, Agostini PJ, Tikka T et al (2016) Long-term impact of developing a postoperative pulmonary complication after lung surgery. Thorax; 71(2):171-6. doi: 10.1136/thoraxjnl-2015-207697

Maeda K, Higashimoto Y, Honda N et al (2016) Effect of a postoperative outpatient pulmonary rehabilitation program on physical activity in patients who underwent pulmonary resection for lung cancer. Geriatr Gerontol Int; 16(5):550-5. doi: 10.1111/ggi.12505

Marseu K, Slinger P (2016) Peri-operative pulmonary dysfunction and protection. Anaesthesia; 71 Suppl 1:46-50. doi: 10.1111/anae.13311
• pre-operative exercise training reduces postoperative pulmonary complications

Martin PS, Braga AC, Meira CA et al (2013) Implementation of a guideline for physical therapy in the postoperative period of upper abdominal surgery reduces the incidence of atelectasis and length of hospital stay. Rev Port Pneumol; 20(2)69–77. doi: 10.1016/j.rppneu.2013.07.005

Martin JB, Garbee D, Bonanno L (2016) Effectiveness of positive end-expiratory pressure, decreased fraction of inspired oxygen and vital capacity recruitment maneuver in the prevention of pulmonary atelectasis in patients undergoing general anesthesia: a systematic review. JBI Database System Rev Implement Rep; 13(8):211-49. doi: 10.11124/jbisrir-2015-1410

Melam GR, Buragadda S, Alhusaini AA et al (2016) Effect of complete decongestive therapy and home program on health- related quality of life in post mastectomy lymphedema patients. BMC Women’s Health; 16:23. doi: 10.1186/s12905-016-0303-9.

Moran J, Wilson F, Guinan E et al (2016) Role of cardiopulmonary exercise testing as a risk-assessment method in patients undergoing intra-abdominal surgery: a systematic review. Br J Anaesth; 116(2):177-91. doi: 10.1093/bja/aev454
• exercise testing is a useful preoperative risk-stratification tool that can predict postoperative outcome

Oikawa M, Hanada M, Hidaka S et al (2016) Current status of perioperative rehabilitation in patients who undergo esophagectomy for cancer. Kyobu Geka; 69(1):59-64
• oesophagectomy brings the highest rate of respiratory complications of any operation, although these are reduced by perioperative rehabilitation

Onerup A, Angenete E, Bock D, et al (2017( The effect of pre- and post-operative physical activity on recovery after colorectal cancer surgery (PHYSSURG-C): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial. Trials; 18:212. doi:10.1186/s13063-017-1949-9.

Polastri M, Dell’Amore A, Zagnoni G et al (2016) Preoperative physiotherapy in subjects with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis qualified for lung transplantation: implications on hospital length of stay and clinical outcomes. J Thoracic Dis; 8(5):E264-E268. doi: 10.21037/jtd.2016.03.52.

Pasqua F (2012) Intensive long-term pulmonary rehabilitation program after oesophagectomy, a reflection. Multidisciplinary Respir Med, 7, 22. doi:10.1186/2049-6958-7-22

Pasquina P, Tramer MR, Granier J-M et al (2006) Respiratory physiotherapy to prevent pulmonary complications after abdominal surgery. Chest, 130, 6, 1887 - 99
• routine physiotherapy is not justified

Peres ACAM (2017) Body posture after mastectomy: comparison between immediate breast reconstruction versus mastectomy alone. Physiother Res Internat; 22(1): e1642. doi: 10.1002/pri.1642

Petree K (2015) Postoperative singultus: an osteopathic approach. J Am Osteopath Assoc; 115(3):166-8. doi: 10.7556/jaoa.2015.030
• manipulation for postop hiccups

Pouwels S et al (2015) Preoperative exercise therapy in lung surgery patients: a systematic review. Respir Med; 109(12):1495-504. doi: 10.1016/j.rmed.2015.08.009

Pratt-Harrington (1995) The effect of osteopathic manipulative treatment in the post abdominal surgical patient. Am Ass Osteopathy J, Fall, 9-13
• outcome - improved spirometry readings compared to controls

Rodriguez-Larrad A, Vellosillo-Ortega JM, Ruiz-Muneta C et al (2016) Postoperative respiratory exercises reduce the risk of developing pulmonary complications in patients undergoing lobectomy. Arch Bronconeumol; 52(7):347-53. doi: 10.1016/j.arbres.2015.11.017
• postoperative complications reduced by early mobilisation, deep breathing with and without incentive spirometry, chest clearance if required and progressive shoulder and thoracic weight-free mobility exercises

Romera-Villegas A, Cairols-Castellote MA, Vila-Coll R et al (2008) Early mobilisation in patients with acute deep vein thrombosis does not increase the risk of a symptomatic pulmonary embolism. International Angiology; 27(6):494-9
• early walking does not influence the incidence of symptomatic pulmonary embolism.

Sala V, Petrucci L, Monteleone S et al (2016) Oxygen saturation and heart rate monitoring during a single session of early rehabilitation after cardiac surgery. Europ J Phys Rehab Med; 52(1):12-9

Santos PMR, Ricci NA, Suster EAB et al (2017) Effects of early mobilisation in patients after cardiac surgery: a systematic review. Physiotherapy; 103(1):1–12. doi:
• early mobility helps to prevent complications, improve functional capacity and reduce length of stay

Schaller SJ, Anstey M, Blobner M et al (2016) Early, goal-directed mobilisation in the surgical intensive care unit: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet; 1;388(10052):1377-1388. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(16)31637-3

Shakouri SK, Salekzamani Y, Taghizadieh A et al (2016) Effect of respiratory rehabilitation before open cardiac surgery on respiratory function: a randomized clinical trial. J Cardiovasc Thorac Res; 7(1):13-17. doi:10.15171/jcvtr.2015.03.

Silva YR, Li SK, Rickard MJFX (2013) Does the addition of deep breathing exercises to physiotherapy-directed early mobilisation alter patient outcomes following high-risk open upper abdominal surgery? Cluster randomised controlled trial. Physiother, 99, 3, 187-193

Smith MCL (2000) Is retained mucus a risk factor for the development of postoperative atelectasis and pneumonia? Physiother Theory Pract, 16, 69-80

Singh PM, Borle A, Shah D et al (2016) Optimizing prophylactic CPAP in patients without obstructive sleep apnoea for high-risk abdominal surgeries: a meta-regression analysis. Lung; 194(2): 201-217. doi: 10.1007/s00408-016-9855-6
• prophylactic postoperative CPAP reduces the incidence of postoperative pulmonary complications in patients undergoing high-risk abdominal surgery.
• the protective effect diminishes with increasing level of CPAP

Sterzi S (2013) Post-operative rehabilitation for surgically resected non-small cell lung cancer patients: Serial pulmonary functional analysis. J Rehab Med, 45(9):911-915. doi: 10.2340/16501977-1192

Stokes JW, Wanderer JP, McEvoy MD (2016) Significant discrepancies exist between clinician assessment and patient self-assessment of functional capacity by validated scoring tools during preoperative evaluation. Periop Med; 5(18). doi: 10.1186/s13741-016-0041-4

Takahama M, Mimura Y, Matsuda E (2013) Complications influence ambulation in patients undergoing extrapleural pneumonectomy. Hong Kong Physiother J, 31(1):52-53

Tandon M, Singh A, Saluja V et al (2016) Validation of a new “objective pain score” vs. “numeric rating scale” for the evaluation of acute pain: a comparative study. Anesthesiology Pain Med; 6(1):e32101. doi: 10.5812/aapm.32101.
• acute pain in the post-operative period should be assessed at rest and during movement

Thrush A, Skrzat J (2016) Provision of physical therapy at a long-term acute care hospital for patients awaiting lung transplantation: a case report with 3 participants. Cardiopul Phys Ther J: 27(4):122–130. doi: 10.1097/CPT.0000000000000037

Valkenet K, Trappenburg JC, Schippers CC et al (2016) Feasibility of exercise training in cancer patients scheduled for elective gastrointestinal surgery. Dig Surg; 33(5):439-47. doi: 10.1159/000445958

Van der Leeden M, Huijsmans R, Geleijn E et al (2016) Early enforced mobilisation following surgery for gastrointestinal cancer: feasibility and outcomes. Physiotherapy; 102(1):103–110. doi:

Varela G, Ballesteros E, Jimenez MF et al (2006) Cost-effectiveness analysis of prophylactic respiratory physiotherapy in pulmonary lobectomy. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg, 29, 216-20
• physiotherapy involving deep breathing and coughing, treadmill, ergometric cycling, and upper limb exercise (starting pre-operatively and continuing until discharge), showed reduced atelectasis, pneumonia and length of stay, compared to incentive spirometry alone

Westerdahl E (2015) Optimal technique for deep breathing exercises after cardiac surgery. Minerva Anestesiol; 81(6):678-83

Westerdahl E, Lindmark B, Eriksson T et al (2003) The immediate effects of deep breathing exercises on atelectasis and oxygenation after cardiac surgery. Scand Cardiovasc J, 37, 363-7
• a single session of 30 deep-breaths reduces atelectasis and increases oxygenation on the second postoperative day after CABG

Westerdahl E (2005) Deep-breathing exercises reduce atelectasis and improve pulmonary function after coronary artery bypass surgery Chest, 128: 3482-8.
• patients who performed 30 slow deep breaths (against a positive expiratory pressure of 10 cm H2O) hourly during daytime for the first 4 postoperative days after CABG had significantly smaller atelectatic areas and better pulmonary function.

Wickerson L, Rozenberg D, Janaudis-Ferreira T et al (2016) Physical rehabilitation for lung transplant candidates and recipients: An evidence-informed clinical approach. World J Transplant; 6(3):517-531. doi: 10.5500/wjt.v6.i3.517.

Wiskemann J, Schommer K, Jaeger D et al (2016) Exercise and cancer: return to work as a firefighter with ostomy after rectal carcinoma - a case report. Medicine (Baltimore); 95(29):e4309. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000004309

Yip VS, Dunne DF, Samuels S (2016) Adherence to early mobilisation: key for successful enhanced recovery after liver resection. Eur J Surg Oncol; 42(10):1561-7. doi: 10.1016/j.ejso.2016.07.015.

ACPRC = Association of Chartered Physiotherapists in Respiratory Care
CABG = coronary artery bypass graft
FRC = functional residual capacity
JAMA = Journal of American Medical Association