Tracheostomy and head & neck conditions
NICE guidelines [NG36] Cancer of the upper aerodigestive tract (2016)


Brusasco C (2013) In vitro evaluation of heat and moisture exchangers designed for spontaneously breathing tracheostomized patients. Respir Care; 58(11):1878-85

Byard RW, Gilbert JD (2011) Potentially lethal complications of tracheostomy: autopsy considerations. American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology; 32: 3524.

Carter A (2013) The effect of inner tube placement on resistance and work of breathing through tracheostomy tubes: a bench test. Anaesthesia, 68(3):276282
inner tubes increase the resistive work of breathing by an average factor of 2.2

Chikata Y, Oto J, Onodera M et al (2013) Humidification performance of humidifying devices for tracheostomized patients with spontaneous breathing: a bench study. Respir Care, 58(9):1442-8
a heat-moisture exchanger is inadequate in the acute stage of tracheostomy, especially if oxygen is added

Docherty B, Bench S (2002) Tracheostomy management for patients in general ward settings. Prof Nurse, 18, 2, 100-105
basic guide

Hosokawa K, Nishimura M, Egi M et al (2015) Timing of tracheotomy in ICU patients: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Critical Care; 19:424 doi:10.1186/s13054
early tracheotomy in ventilated patients leads to more ventilator-free days, shorter ICU stays, less sedation and reduced long-term mortality, compared to late tracheotomy

Lee ST, Kim MG, Jeon JH et al (2016) Analysis of morbidity, mortality, and risk factors of tracheostomy-related complications in patients with oral and maxillofacial cancer. Maxillofacial Plastic Reconstructive Surg; 38(1):32. doi:10.1186/s40902-016-0078-9.

Mah JW, Ilene I, Fisher SR et al (2017) Improving decannulation and swallowing function: a comprehensive, multidisciplinary approach to post-tracheostomy care. Respir Care; 62(2):137-43

Maxwell BG, Ganaway T, Lighthall GK (2013) Percutaneous tracheostomy at the bedside: 13 tips for improving safety and success. J Intensive Care Med; 29(2):110-5. doi: 10.1177/0885066613487305

McGrath BA, Bates L, Atkinson D et al (2012) Multidisciplinary guidelines for the management of tracheostomy and laryngectomy airway emergencies. Anaesthesia, 67, 9, 10251041, doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2044.2012.07217.x

Pitance L, Vecellio L, Delval G et al (2013) Aerosol delivery through tracheostomy tubes: an in vitro study. J Aerosol Med Pulm Drug Deliv, 26(2): 76-83. doi:10.1089/jamp.2011.0962

Puentes W, Jerath A, Djaiani G L et al (2016) Early versus late tracheostomy in cardiovascular intensive care patients. Anaesthesiol Intensive Ther; 48(2):89-94. doi: 10.5603/AIT.a2016.0016

Putensen C, Theuerkauf NU, Guenther U et al (2014) Percutaneous and surgical tracheostomy in critically ill adult patients: a meta-analysis. Crit Care, 18:544 doi:10.1186/s13054-

Sanwal MK (2012) Posttracheostomy tracheoesophageal fistula. J Anaesthesiol Clin Pharmacol, 28, 1, 140141. doi: 10.4103/0970-9185.92478

Terris DJ (2000) Head and neck cancer: the importance of oxygen. Laryngoscope, 110, 697-707;jsessionid=DICKIxVHbtp6lcrKyWFzf53mnLdSzRHkI2yf6Q5h2cwL59ELI1Ef!1556005714!-949856145!9001!-1?index=1&database=ppvovft&results=1&count=10&searchid=2&nav=search

Vitacca M, Paneroni L, Bianchi E et al (2006) Maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressure measurement in tracheotomised patients. Eur Respir J, 27, 3439

Zanata I de L, Santos RS, Hirata GC (2014) Tracheal decannulation protocol in patients affected by traumatic brain injury. International Archives Otorhinolaryngology; 18(2):108-114. doi:10.1055/s-0033-1363467