• italics indicate figures or tables
  • blue words are defined in the glossary
  • abbreviations are at the end
2.3.DPG 17

abdomen 46

         distended 233, 456

abdominal aortic aneurysm 139-40, 382

abdominal breathing 186, 210-11, 338

abdominal paradox 42-3, 77

abdominal surgery 381-3

ABGs 35

         see also: arterial blood gases

abscess 116

         on x-ray 57

absorption atelectasis 147, 371

Acapella 237-8

ACBT - see: active cycle of breathing

accessory muscles 8, 209

         in COPD 77

Accolate 164

Accuhaler 166-7

ACE inhibitors 133, 135, 165

acetylcysteine 163

acid-base balance 20-22

acidaemia 20

acidosis 20-22

acquired immune deficiency syndrome 119

active cycle of breathing 229-31

        for cystic fibrosis 99

       in children 305

activities of daily living 41, 266-7

acupressure 259, 268, 378

acupuncture 268, 360, 378

acute coronary syndrome 137

acute lung injury 514

acute pancreatitis 509, 520

acute respiratory distress syndrome 513-19

AD - see: autogenic drainage

added sounds 51-2

adenocarcinoma 118

adherence 312

         see also: motivation

adolescent unit 296

adrenaline 426

adrenergic receptors 162

advance directives 257, 415

Aerochamber 166-7

aerosol 226

afferent impulse 203

afterload 133, 434

ageing 345-8

         see also: elderly people

agonist 160

agoraphobia 330

AIDS 119

air bronchogram 57

           in infants 286

air embolism 481

air entry 51

air hunger 201

air leak 384, 386

airflow obstruction 9, 10, 64, 74

airflow resistance 9

airflow turbulence 51

airway closure 15, 234, 371

airway pressure 456, 429, 457

airway pressure release ventilation 421, 422

airways 4-6

          artificial 416-418

         floppy 73, 75-6, 99

         in infants 276

         unstable 239

alarms 424, 476, 482

albumin 37, 454

aldosterone 131

alert card 146-7

Alexander Technique 268

alfentanyl 437

alkalosis 20-22, 330

allergy 85-6

alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency 7, 77, 121, 124

alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient 20

alveolar-capillary membrane 7, 15

alveoli 4, 76

Alzheimer's disease 86

Ambox 156

Ambu bag 463

aminophylline 162-4

amputation 139

amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 108

anaemia 37, 454

anaerobic metabolism 28, 447, 511

anaesthetic 371

           local 377, 378

analgesia

          for children 300

          epidural 377, 391

          in ICU 437

          for infants 280, 282

         intramuscular 378, 402

         multimodal 377

         patient-controlled 377

         postoperative 373-8

         transdermal 378

anaphylaxis 481-2

angina 136-7

angioplasty 138-9, 391

angiotensin 131, 135

angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors 133

ankylosing spondylitis 112

antagonist 160

antibiotics 163, 165

anticholinergic drugs 162-3, 164

anticoagulants 138, 454

anti-leukotrienes 86, 89,164

antimuscarinic drugs 162

antiplatelets 137, 139

anxiety 41, 203, 209, 362

           in the ICU 456, 459

aortic dissection 140

aortic valve regurgitation 133

aortic valve stenosis 133

aortofemoral graft 139

appetite 41

Arnold's cough reflex 6

arterial blood gases 16-22, 35, 37, 441

         see also: ABGs

         see also the case studies

arterial line disconnection 482

arterial oxygen saturation 441

         see also: SpO2

asbestosis 102

ascites 46

aspergillosis 116

aspiration 34,108-10, 114, 347, 448

         with surgery 373, 395

         with tracheostomy 397, 459

aspirin 137

assessment 33-69

          of children 303

         of neonates 285

         for pulmonary rehabilitation 254-6

         see also the individual conditions

assessment tools - see: outcomes

assist-control ventilation 420

assist mode ventilation 421

assisted breath 419

assisted spontaneous breathing 420

asthma 74, 84-91, 124, 492, 341

         attack 91

         blood gas values 23

         brittle 86

         in children 296-7

         and COPD 85

         and hyperventilation syndrome 331

asystole 446

atelectasis 55, 56, 179-80, 191, 456, 530

         in children 296

         in infants 276, 286

         with mechanical ventilation 426

         postoperative 370, 375, 390

         see also: collapse

atelectrauma 425, 513, 514, 516

atheromatous plaques 136

atherosclerosis 136, 139-40

atrial ectopics 446

atrial fibrillation 446

atrial flutter 446

atropine 163

Atrovent 164

audit 531-3

auscultation 48-52

         in children 304

         in neonates 286

autogenic drainage 231-2

         for cystic fibrosis 99

        in children 305

autoregulation 23

awareness during anaesthesia 372

 

bacteraemia 510

bacteria 37, 112

bag-squeezing 462

balloon pump 439

balloon-tipped pulmonary artery catheter 443, 444

Bambec 164

bambuterol 164

bariatric surgery 383

barotrauma 7, 191, 424, 425

Barrett's oesophagus 211

base excess 21

beclometasone 164

bed rest 27

bereavement 356, 357

beta1-receptors 160

beta2-adrenergics 162

beta2-agonists 162-4, 81, 88-9

beta2-receptors 160

beta2-stimulants 162

beta-blockers 135, 138-9, 320, 436

bicarbonate 20-21

bigeminy 446

bilevel positive airway pressure 213, 421

biochemistry 36-7

biofeedback 268

biofilm 417

biomarker 135, 137

Biot's breathing 42-3

BiPAP 214

biphasic positive airways pressure 421, 422

Bird 191-3

bird fancier's lung 102

blood gases - see: arterial blood gases

blood pressure 35, 130-1, 442, 455

           in infants 276, 286

         see also: BP

blue baby 279

bones on x-ray 59

Borg scale 255

BP 131, 320, 477

         see also: blood pressure

brain injury 493-500

breast surgery 395

breath-holding 209

breath sounds 49-51

breath-stacking 111

breathing 3, 12

breathing control 210

breathing exercises

         for breathlessness 209-11

          for lung volume 184-6, 305

          postoperative 379

          for secretions 229-32

breathing pattern 42-3

breathing pattern disorder - see: hyperventilation syndrome

breathing re-education 209-11

         see also: breathing re-training, breathing exercises

breathing retraining

           in asthma 90

           in hyperventilation syndrome 337-9

          see also: breathing exercises, breathing re-education

breathless scale 264

breathlessness 199-208

          acute 485-6

          assessment 38, 455

          in COPD 77

          in elderly people 348

         in ICU 456

          in palliative care 360

         physiotherapy for 199-221

         see also: dyspnoea, shortness of breath

breathlessness clinic 204

Bricanyl 164

bronchial breathing 49, 51

bronchial circulation 15

bronchiectasis 91-5

          and COPD 93

         dry 92

bronchiolitis 278

bronchiolitis obliterans organising pneumonia 115, 298

bronchoalveolar alveolar carcinoma 118

bronchoalveolar lavage 170, 291

         in children 306

           in infants 291

bronchoconstrictor tone 4

bronchodilators 146, 162-4

           for COPD 80-1

           for asthma 88-9

bronchogram 94

bronchopleural fistula 183, 191, 233, 385

bronchopneumonia 113-4

bronchopulmonary dysplasia 278

bronchoscopy 170

bronchospasm 4, 76

           in asthma 85-6

           in COPD 76

           drugs for 162-3

bubble CPAP 283

bubble humidification 226

bubble PEP 237, 305, 306

bucket handle action 8

         in children 296

budesonide 164

buffers 20-21, 37

bullae 57, 75, 110

bullectomy 384

bundle branch block 446

bundles of care 527

burns 506-8

Buspirone 163

Buteyko technique 90

bypass grafting 139

 

CABG 389, 391, 391

cachexia 78-9, 117, 158, 360

caffeine 162,225

calcium channel blockers 133, 138, 320

cancer

          laryngeal 396

         lung 116-19

cannabis 123

capacity see: consent

         see also: lung capacities

capillary blood gas 154

capillary leak 512

capillary refill time 48

capnography 335, 336, 442

carbocisteine 81, 163

carbon dioxide 7

          see also: CO2

carbon monoxide 7

           poisoning 506

carcinoma 116-19

         see also: cancer

cardiac arrest 478

cardiac output 28, 130-1, 436, 442, 455

cardiac rehabilitation 313-21

cardiac tamponade 390, 443, 480

cardiopulmonary bypass 389, 392

cardiovascular disorders 129-45

         physiotherapy for 311-25

cardiovascular drugs 436-7

cardioverter defibrillator 439

cerebral perfusion pressure 493

         see also: CPP

catheters 243

central line disconnection 482

central venous oxygenation 447

central venous pressure 442-3, 445

cerebral palsy 299, 308

cervical auscultation 108

charts 34, 454

chemoreceptors 7, 103, 203

chemotherapy 118

chest drains 383, 386-9

chest infections 112-6

          in children 297

         postoperative 371

chest shape 43-4, 45

chest wall 7

Cheyne-Stokes breathing 42, 493

children 295-310

         and bereavement 357

chlormethiazole 437

cholinergic receptors 162

chronic bronchitis 74, 75, 77

chronic lung disease of prematurity 278

chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

     74-84, 491-2

         control of breathing in COPD 7

         in the ICU 491-2

         pulmonary rehabilitation for 252

         see also: COPD

ciclesonide 164

cilia 5-6

         in cystic fibrosis 99

circulation 7

clapping 234

clenil 164

clinical reasoning 526, 535

         see also the end of each chapter

closing volume 15, 24, 346

clotting studies 37

clubbing 44-5

CMV 429

      see also: controlled mandatory ventilation

CO2

      diffusion 15, 17, 18

      measurement 68

      see also: carbon dioxide

Coach incentive spirometer 186, 188

coagulopathy 509, 510

coarctation of aorta 132, 293-4

cocaine 123

cold water bubble humidification 226

collagen vascular disease 509

collapse (of lung tissue)

          in a child 308

         in infants 292

         on x-ray 54-60, 196, 379

         see also: atelectasis

collateral channels 13, 234, 235

collateral ventilation 10, 186

           in infants 276

colloids 434

colonization 510

colour 44

Combivent 164

common cold 112

communication  

         with elderly people 350

         with dying people 358-9

          in ICU 411, 459, 460

          teaching 534

         with a tracheostomy 399

comorbidities 

         in cardiovascular disorders 129, 134

         in COPD 75

         in cystic fibrosis 96

         in asthma 85

complementary therapies 268

compliance 10

         curve 10, 13

         dynamic 11

         and positioning 181

         static 11

computed tomography 60, 137

confusion 43, 347, 456

congenital diaphragmatic hernia 280

congenital heart disease 279-80

congestive cardiac failure 134

coning 494

consent 414-15

         for children 303

          for infants 284, 285

consolidation 49, 179, 51

         in infants 286

         on x-ray 57, 113-5

constipation 36, 41, 43, 46, 348, 372

continuous positive airway pressure 189-

     191, 283-4, 421

         in children 302

         for pulmonary oedema 312

          in neonates 283

         see also: CPAP

contractures 27, 348

controlled mandatory ventilation 419, 420

         see also: CMV

control of breathing 7

         during sleep 26

COPD 74-84, 85, 93, 218

         and asthma 85

         blood gas values 23

         and bronchiectasis 93

         end stage 83

         exacerbation 82

         oxygen therapy 153

         see also: chronic obstructive

                 pulmonary disease

cor pulmonale 78

core stability 8

Cornet 238

coronary arteries 136

coronary artery bypass graft 138, 389, 391

coronary artery disease 136

coronary heart disease 129, 135-8

coronary thrombosis 136

corticosteroids 39-40, 161, 164

         see also: steroids

costophrenic angles 55

cough 6-7, 39-40, 165, 238-42

         assisted 231-41

          in children 306

         dry 40, 241-2

         in palliative care 361

         postoperative 375, 380

CoughAssist 239-41

cough belt 380

cough control 241-2

cough facilitation 238-41

Cough lok 381

cough mixtures 165

cough peak flow - see: peak cough flow

cough suppression - see: cough control

cough swab 306

CPAP 189-191, 195, 212, 422

          for cystic fibrosis 100

         for sleep apnoea 121

         see also: continuous positive airway

              pressure

CPP 493-6, 498

crack cocaine 123

crackles (on auscultation) 51

creatinine 37

critical care 409-522

         levels of care 410

critical illness myopathy 503

critical illness polyneuropathy 503

Crohn's disease 123

cromones 164

         see also: nedocromil

croup 297,298

cryptogenic organizing pneumonia 115

crystalloids 434

CT scan 60

cuff pressure 417

cuirass ventilator 217

cyanosis 44

         in infants 279, 285-6

cystic fibrosis 92, 99, 95-100, 248

         in children 296

cytology 37

 

dairy products 160

dead space 12, 13

         alveolar 12

         anatomical 12, 13

         physiological 13

death rattle 364

decortication 385

deep breathing 184-6, 462

         for breathless patients 208

deep vein thrombosis 140, 454

         postoperative 372, 380

         see also: DVT

defence 4-7

         in neonates 287

dehiscence 372

dehydration 35-6, 48, 225, 347, 434

          in dying patients 362

         in elderly people 347

         with surgery 373

delirium 347, 364

         in ICU 411-12, 436, 473

         postoperative 372

dementia 347, 349-50, 350, 351

depression 40, 259, 315

         in dying people 357, 362

         in elderly people 347

         with hyperventilation syndrome 329

         in ICU 411-12, 459

         and pain 376

         postoperative 372

derecruitment 423, 425, 513

desaturation 146

         on exercise 156

         in neonates 288

desensitization 88, 205

dexmedetomidine 300, 437

dextran 434

diabetes 122-3

diaphragm 7-8, 12, 50

         in COPD 76

         on x-ray 54-5

diaphragmatic breathing 210

diaphragmatic paralysis 110, 280

diaphragmatic rupture 506

diary 413, 474, 477

diastolic 130

diazepam 437

DIC 508-9, 512

D-dimer test 141

dietician 80, 145, 160, 257, 316, 435

diffusion 15, 17, 18

digoxin 426

discharge 83, 247, 316, 533

         from the ICU 475

         after surgery 381

         with a tracheostomy 402

disconnection 482

disseminated intravascular coagulation 454, 508-9

dissociation curve 17, 330

diuretics 81, 133, 135, 436

dizziness 41, 135

DNase 97

DO2 23, 78, 511, 513, 516

dobutamine 426

dopamine 426

dopexamine 426

doxapram 165, 366

drive to breathe 202-3

         see also: control of breathing, respiratory drive 

drowning, non-fatal 508

drugs 123, 160-9

       for airflow obstruction 161-3, 164, 437

       for children 301-2

        in ICU 436-8

       illicit 123

       for neonates 284

       see also the individual disorders

       see also: medication

dual control ventilation 419

Duchenne muscular dystrophy 299

DVT 141-2

         see also: deep vein thrombosis

dying 364

         see also: palliative care

dynamic airway compression 7, 9, 229

dysfunctional breathing 328

dysphagia 107-9, 160, 362, 395, 418

         with tracheostomy 397

dyspnoea 39, 199, 360

         assessment 38, 39

          and hyperventilation syndrome 331

         mechanism 292

          see also: breathlessness, shortness of breath

 

ECG 445-6

echocardiography 79

ECMO 440

ectopic 446

education 178, 533-5

   in cardiac rehabilitation 317

   for on-calls 483-4

   in pulmonary rehabilitation 257

 see also the individual disorders

effectiveness 33

efferent impulse 203

efficiency 33, 530

ejection fraction 133

elastance 10

elastic recoil 6, 8, 76

elderly people 345-54

electrocardiogram 137, 445-6

electrolarynx 399

electrolytes 36, 455

embolectomy 141

embolism 140

   see also: air/fat/pulmonary embolism

embolus 136

emergencies 478-83

emphysema 74, 75, 77, 125

empyema 106, 233, 385, 395, 536

end-diastolic volume 133

end-inspiratory hold 186,189

end-of-life decisions 415

endotoxin 510, 513

endotracheal tube 417

end-stage disease 355

end-tidal CO2  68, 286, 442, 496

endurance shuttle test

   see: shuttle test

endurance training 261

energy conservation 266-8

energy demand 200

energy supply 200

Enhanced Recovery Programme 373-4

enteral feeds 160, 435, 512

Entonox 193

eosinophils 46, 79

EPAP 214-7

   see also: expiratory positive airway pressure

epidural 377-8

epiglottis 4, 6

epiglottitis 297-8

epilepsy 479

equal pressure point 229-30

erdosteine 81, 163

Erdotin 81

ERV 62

   see also: expiratory reserve volume

erythrocyte sedimentation rate 37

erythrocytes 37

evaluation 525-35

   see also: outcomes

evidence-based practice 177-8

exercise 28, 91, 119-21, 132, 211-2

   active 473

   circuit 263

   for children 307

   for elderly people 348-9

   in ICU 472-5

   for infants 292

   isotonic/isometric 261

   for lung volume 180

   passive 473

   prescription 262, 314, 319

   for secretions 229

   see also the different disorders

exercise tests 256

exercise training 259-64, 318-21, 322

exhalation 8

exhaled breath 69

exhaustion 42

expansion 46, 47

expectoration 224, 239

expiration 8

expiratory muscle training 265

expiratory positive airway pressure 213

  see also: EPAP

expiratory reserve volume 63

external intercostals 8

extracorporeal membrane oxygenation 440

extrinsic PEEP 428

extubation 418, 433

  for children 302

  unplanned 482

EzPAP 236

exudates 105

 

facial trauma 191

fainting 41

falls 249

family 259, 458

  of dying people 357, 358

  of infants 276

fan 205

farmer's lung 102

fat embolism 508

fatigue 40, 107, 109, 111, 117, 134

 acute 208

 central 12

 of diaphragm/respiratory muscles

          11-12, 203, 264

 in the ICU 432, 456

 in dying people 361

 postoperative 372

 peripheral 12

FEF25-75 65

FEF50 65

FEF25-75

Feldenkrais 268

femoral catheter 439, 473, 474

fentanyl 163, 378, 437

FEV1 61, 64, 65, 66

    in asthma 88

    in COPD 74,81

    in cystic fibrosis 100

FEV1/FVC 61, 64, 66

    in COPD 74

   in asthma 88

fever 34

fibrosing alveolitis 102, 56, 104

fibrosis 54, 56, 76, 102

FIO2 16, 18, 147-53

finger clubbing 44-5

fissures of lung 50, 56

flail chest 190, 505

Flixotide 164

flow bias 423, 469

flow control ventilation 418

flow-cycling 419

flow meter 148, 153

flow rate 423

    inspiratory 423

    of oxygen 148-51, 154-6

flow-time curve/waveform 428, 441

flow-volume loop 65-6

fluid 225, 434, 455

    balance 35, 36

    chart 35

    overload 35

    resuscitation 43, 442

   with surgery 371, 373

fluoroscopy 60

fluticasone 164

Flutter 237-8, 469

follow-up 268, 280, 475

Foradil 164

forced expiration 78

forced expiratory volume in one second 61

forced vital capacity 61 ,65

foreign body, inhaled 101, 298

formoterol 162, 164

forward-lean-sitting 205, 206

Fostair 164

fraction of inspired oxygen 16, 147

    see also: FiO2

FRC 24, 62, 65, 66, 76, 189

    see also: functional residual capacity 

frequency 429

   see also: respiratory rate

full blood count 37

functional residual capacity 9,15,24,62,181,190

   in infants 276

   and positioning 181

   see also: FRC

fungi 112, 116

funnel chest 44

furosemide 163

FVC 64, 66

  see also: forced vital capacity

 

gas dilution 66

gas exchange 6-20, 67-8, 441

   positioning for 182-4

gas transfer 67, 79

gas trapping 76, 427, 428

   see also: intrinsic PEEP

gastric tonometry 447

gastroesophageal reflux 122

   in asthma 86

    in children 299

    in COPD 79

   in cystic fibrosis 96

    with mechanical ventilation 425

    in neonates 285

gastrostomy tube 382

GCS 496, 498

    see also: Glasgow Coma Scale

gel layer 5, 6

gelatins 434

Glasgow Coma Scale 493, 497

glossopharyngeal breathing 111

glottis 6

glucocorticosteroids 161

    see also: steroids

goal-setting 177

gravity-assisted positions

    see: postural drainage

ground glass appearance 56

grunting 285 287

Guedel airway 245-6

guidelines 526-7, Appendix A

Guillain-Barré syndrome 503-4

 

haematemesis 45

haematocrit 37, 455

haematology 37

haemodynamic monitoring 442-5

haemofiltration 456

haemoglobin 16, 35, 37, 44

   with mobilisation 180

   see also: Hb

haemoptysis 45,93,100,116,118,141,191

  and autogenic drainage 231

   and PEP 235

   and postural drainage 234

   and suction 244

haemorrhage 372, 443, 479-80

   from tracheostomy 397

haemothorax 105

half-lying 181

Handihaler 166-7

handling breathless people 204

handling critically ill people 458-60

handling infants 275, 285, 288-9

handling patients in pain 376, 377, 380

handover 34

hands 44-5

Hartmann's solution 434

Hayek oscillator 238

Hb 16-18

HCO-3 21, 22

   see also: bicarbonate

head and neck surgery 395-6

head bobbing 287

head box 152

head injury: see brain injury

head and neck surgery 395-6

head-of-bed elevation 461, 496

haemodialysis 509

haemofiltration 509

heart block 446

heart disease 133-8, 312-21

heart failure 133-5, 78, 312-15, 445

heart rate 35, 130

   in children 304

   in infants 282,286

heart surgery 389-91

heart on x-ray 53-4

heat-moisture exchange 226, 228

   in the ICU 468

   with NIV 214

heel rise test 139

Heliox 157-8, 492

helmet/hood 214, 215, 302

heparin 37, 141

hepatectomy 382

hiccups 363, 372

hierarchy of evidence 178

high-flow mask 148

high-flow nasal cannula 150

high-frequency chest compression 99, 238

high-frequency jet ventilation 430

high-frequency oscillators 217, 238, 430

high-frequency percussive ventilation 430, 469

high-frequency ventilation 430-1

high-side-lying 206, 207

hila 54

histology 37

history 38

HIV 119

Homan's sign 140

home oxygen 153-7

home treatment 83, 253, 269, 315, 317

hood/helmet 214, 215, 302

Hoover's sign 42, 76

Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale 255

Hospital-at-Home 82

house dust mite 85, 88

huff 229-32

human immunodeficiency virus 119

humidification 224-9

  in the ICU 468

  for neonates 282

  with NIV 214

   with a tracheostomy 399

humidifier

   cold water 226

  hot water 226, 228, 68

  nebulizing 226-8

hyaline membrane disease 278

hydration 5, 48, 99, 225, 467

hydrocortisone 164

hypercapnia 19, 423

hypercapnic respiratory drive 7, 110

   and oxygen 153

hyperdynamic state 442, 510

hyperinflation 54, 75-6, 190, 209

   muscle stretches for 207

   positioning for 206-7

   see also: manual hyperinflation

hyperkalaemia 36

hyperoxia 146

hyperpnoea 200

hyperresonance 48

hypertension 35, 130-3, 436

  in children 298

  see also: pulmonary hypertension

hypertonic saline 99

   for cystic fibrosis 98

   for infants 279

hyperventilation 18, 20, 22, 200, 442

hyperventilation syndrome 201, 327-44

   in children 298

hypervolaemia 445

hypoglycaemia 123

hypokalaemia 36

hyponatraemia 36

hypoventilation 18, 19

hypovolaemia 434, 443, 445, 455

hypovolaemic shock 443, 511

hypoxaemia 18, 19

   in infants 276

  postoperative 371, 390

hypoxia 18-19, 23

   pulmonary 16

   systemic 16

hypoxic respiratory drive 7, 146, 148

  and IPPB 193

   and oxygen 153

hypoxic vasoconstriction 16, 55, 78, 79, 179

hysteresis 10

 

ICF 74, 109, 111, 178, 200, 254, 503

ICP 493-500

I:E ratio 42, 78, 211, 423

imaging 52-61, 457-8

immobility 27, 363, 371

   see also: mobility

immunotherapy 88, 297

incentive spirometry 186-9, 195, 380

incisions 370, 383

indacaterol 162, 164

indrawing 42-3

   see also: recessions

induced sputum  46, Appendix C

infants 275-93

infection 510

   chest 112-6

infection control 415

infiltrates 55, 56

inflammation 102, 513

    drugs for 161

    see also the individual disorders

influenza 112

inhalers 166-9

   with NIV 217

inhalation 8

inhaled foreign body 101, 298

inotropes 436

INR 37

insomnia 364

   see also: sleep

inspiration 8

inspiratory:expiratory ratio 42, 78, 211, 423

inspiratory capacity 24

inspiratory muscle fatigue 11-12, 42, 203

inspiratory muscle training 265, 314

  in ICU 747

   in neonates 284

  see also: respiratory muscle training

inspiratory muscle weakness 12, 42, 217

inspiratory muscles 8

inspiratory pause 424

inspiratory positive airway pressure 213

   see also: IPAP

inspiratory reserve volume 62-3

insufflation-exsufflation 111, 239-41, 469, 502

intensive care 409-522, 454

intensive care weakness 503

intercostal drains - see: chest drains

intercostal muscles 8

intermittent claudication 138, 321, 322

intermittent mandatory ventilation 420

intermittent oxygen 153

intermittent positive pressure breathing 179, 191-5, 238

internal mammary artery 389

International Classification of Functioning,

 Disability and Health 33

    see also: ICF

interstitial lung disease 101-5

interval training 261, 266, 314

intra-aortic balloon pump 439

intracranial pressure - see: ICP

intrapulmonary percussors 99, 238

intravascular oxygenation 440

intraventricular haemorrhage 277, 285, 287

intrinsic PEEP 76-7, 427, 441

inverse-ratio ventilation 421, 423

IPAP 214-7

   see also: inspiratory positive airway pressure

IPPB 195

  see also: intermittent positive pressure

      breathing

ipratropium 164-5

isotonic saline 226, 229

 

jet nebulizers 226-7

jugular venous pressure 443

 

kangaroo care 281

Kaposi sarcoma 118

Kartagener's syndrome 101

kidney disease/injury 120-1, 509

kinetic beds 461

kyphoscoliosis 112

 

laboured breathing 42

lactic acidosis 20, 203, 511

Lady Windermere syndrome 241

Laerdal bag 464

laparoscopy 381

laryngectomy 396-9

laryngospasm 243

larynx 4, 8

lateral x-ray 59-60

lavage 170

learning disabilities 357, 376

left atrial pressure 443

left ventricular failure 133

legionnaire's disease 115

leucocytes 37

leukopaenia 37

liquid ventilation 440

literature appraisal 527-8

liver disease/injury 121, 510

living wills 415

lobectomy 383, 403

lobes of lung 50

long term oxygen therapy 153-6

low density lipoprotein 136

lung capacities 61-2, 62

lung contusion 506

lung protective ventilation 423, 515

lung surgery 383-5

lung volume

  loss of 46, 49, 56

  methods to increase 177-97

lung volumes 62, 63, 65-6

 

macrophages 7

malnutrition 158, 435

   in COPD 78-9

  in cystic fibrosis 96

  in elderly people 349, 350

  postoperative 382

mandatory breath 419

mandatory minute ventilation 421

mannitol 94, 98, 165

manometer 288, 463

manual hyperinflation 462-6, 469

   for children 305

   for infants 287-9

  pressures 465

manual hypeventilation 462

manual techniques to clear secretions 233-4, 469

  in children 305

  in neonates 289

manual techniques for cystic fibrosis 99

manual ventilation 462

MAP 493-4, 496-7

  see also: mean arterial pressure

Mapleson-C bag 464

masks

   for children 300, 301

    for oxygen 148-52

    for NIV 214-16

massage 411

mastectomy 395

maximum expiratory pressure 68

maximum inspiratory pressure 68

maximum mid-expiratory flow 65

maximum oxygen consumption 27, 68

maximum voluntary ventilation 63

mean arterial pressure 130

  in brain injury 493

  see also: MAP

mechanical aids

  for breathlessness 206, 212-8

  for lung volume 186-95

  for sputum clearance 234-8

mechanical ventilation 416-431

  for children 302

  complications 424-8

  control of breath 418

  cycling 419

  modes 419-21

  for neonates 284

  trigger 418

mechanics of breathing 7-11

mechanoreceptor 203

meconium aspiration syndrome 277

medication

   for pain 376-8

  see also: drugs

Mediflo 187, 189, 236

meningococcal septicaemia 512

mesothelioma 105, 118

metabolic acidosis 20-22, 511

metabolic alkalosis 20-22

metastases 34,118

metered dose inhaler 166-7, 169, 438

methylxanthines 162-4

MEWS see: Modified Early Warning Score

microaspiration 114, 417

microbiology 37

midazolam 437

minitracheostomy 246

minute ventilation 12, 63, 432

  see also: minute volume

minute volume 12, 13, 20, 63

  see also: minute ventilation

mitral valve regurgitation 133

mixed venous blood 16, 447

mixed venous oxygenation 447

mobility

  in elderly people 348

  postoperative 379

   standards 529

   see also: exercise, immobility

mobilization 180

  in the ICU 474-5

  see also: mobility

mobilizations 207

modes of ventilation 419-21

Modified Early Warning Score 36

Mometasone 164

monitoring 441-7

    in infants 286

montelukast 164

morphine 163, 165, 377

    see also: opioids

motivation 258, 269

   see also: adherence

motor neurone disease 108

mouth 4

MRC dyspnoea scale 255

MRSA 165

mucociliary clearance 5, 6, 92, 224-50

   see also: secretions

Mucodyne 81, 163

mucokinetics 163

mucolytics 81, 163, 165

mucous blanket 5

mucus 4-6, 87, 99, 223

   velocity 6

   viscosity 225

multidisciplinary care 145,200,204,351,356,526

   in the ICU 475

    in pulmonary rehabilitation 251

    see also: teamwork

multiple sclerosis 109

multisystem failure 510-13

muscle relaxants 437

muscle stretches 207

muscle weakness/dysfunction

  in COPD 78, 79

  of inspiratory muscles 12

  in neuromuscular disease 107-11

muscular dystrophy 109

myasthenia gravis 109, 504

myocardial infarction 136, 146

myocardial ischaemia 136

myopathy 473

 

N-acetylcysteine 98

nasal cannula 149-52

   high flow 151, 468

nasal pillows 215, 216

nasal swab 306

nasogastric tube 160-1, 382

nasopharyngeal airway 245-6

nasopharyngeal aspirate 306

nasopharyngeal catheter 151

  in infants 276

nasopharynx 4

nausea 363, 372, 373

nebulizers

  for drug delivery 166-9

   for humidification 226-8

   with NIV 217

   saline 165, 226, 468

   ultrasonic 226

neck dissection 395

necrotising enterocolitis 280

nedocromil 86, 89, 164, 297

negative pressure ventilation 217

neonatal intensive care 280-4

neurally adjusted ventilatory assist 421

neurological conditions 107, 503

neuromuscular electrical stimulation 206, 473

neuromuscular blocking agents 437

neuromuscular disorders 107-11

    in children 299

neurophysiological facilitation of respiration 186,187,462

neutropaenia,454

neutrophils 46, 79

nicotine 26, 165, 454

Nijmegen questionnaire 335

nitrates 137

nitric oxide 436

nitrogen washout 66

nodal rhythm 445

noise 281, 411

non-invasive ventilation 212-8

  for cystic fibrosis 98, 100

  in children 302

  for COPD 82

   in infants 289

  for neuromuscular disease 107-11

  in palliative care 361

non-rebreathing system 149-50

non ST-segment elevation MI 137

noradrenaline 436

normal values

  in children 304

  in infants 286

nose 4

nose breathing 337

notes 34

nutrition 158-60, 435

  preoperative 373

  postoperative 382

   with a tracheostomy 400

   see also: malnutrition

 

obesity 24

 see also: bariatric surgery

obturator 399

occupational therapy 132, 200, 474

oedema 45, 78

obliterative bronchiolitis 392

observation 41-6

obstructive defect 63, 64, 66, 73-4

oesophageal varices 121, 510

oesophagectomy 394, 395

  and suction 244

omalizumab 89

Ombrez 164

on calls 483-6, 531, 534-5

oncotic pressure 434

Ondine's curse 487

opacities on x-ray 57

open lung ventilation 515

opioids 135,360

  see also: morphine

oropharynx 4

orthopnoea 38, 134

orthostatic intolerance 28

oscillatory PEP 236-8

osmolarity 226

osteopathic techniques 82

osteoporosis

  in COPD 79

  in cystic fibrosis 96

  in elderly people 348

outcomes 195, 218, 247, 269, 454, 529-30

  see also individual disorders and problems

outreach 410

oximetry 35, 152, 156

  nocturnal 154, 371

oxygen 145-57

   acute 152-3

  ambulatory 156, 157

  assessment 146, 154, 156-7

  in COPD 80

  and dyspnoea 146

  hyperbaric 157

  long term 153-6

  masks 148-52

  for neonates 283

  nocturnal 26, 146, 152, 154-5

  portable 156

  short-burst 157

  prescription 152, 154-5, 157

  toxicity 147, 278

oxygen cascade 22-3

oxygen consumption 23, 447, 458, 510, 514

oxygen cost of breathing 11, 68

oxygen delivery 23, 447, 511, 514

oxygen dissociation curve 17-18

oxygen saturation 17, 152

  in neonates 285

  target 146-7, 152-3

  of venous blood 447

oxygen tension 15, 17

oxygen transport 23

oxygen uptake 23

 

PA-aO2 - see: PAO2-PaO2

pacemaker 438

pacing 211-12

   and quality of movement 206

packed cell volume 37

PaCO2 16, 485, 432

  in infants 286

PaO2 16, 17

  in infants 286

PaO2:FiO2 ratio 20

PAO2-PaO2 18, 20, 135

paediatric intensive care unit 300-3

pain 40, 349, 373-8

   assessment 375-6, 454

  and breathlessness 200

  chest 137

  in children 300-1, 309

  in COPD 77

   with coughing 239

   effects 375

  and hyperventilation syndrome 331

  in the ICU 413, 456

  in infants 282

  in neonates 282, 285, 286

  with neuromuscular disorders 107

  postoperative 371, 373-8, 404

  in palliative care 355-68

  pleuritic 105, 114, 141

  shoulder 473

palliative care 355-68

pallor 44, 455

Palm cups 289

palpation 46-8

Pancoast's syndrome 118

panic attacks 78, 166, 339-10

paradoxical breathing 42, 432

paralytic ileus 382

parasympathetic receptors 162

parenchyma 40, 101

parenteral nutrition 161, 435

Parkinson's disease 110

paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnoea 38, 134

partial pressure of CO2 16

partial pressure of oxygen 16

partial pressure or tension of oxygen 16

partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood 16

partial-rebreathing mask 148-50

Passy-Muir valve 400

patients' rights 414-15

PAWP 514

   see also: pulmonary artery wedge pressure

PE 141-2

  see also: pulmonary embolism

peak airway pressure 429

peak cough flow 68, 107, 108

peak expiratory flow rate 61

peak flow 61, 64, 66

  in asthma 89

peak inspiratory flow 148

peak pressure 456

pectus carinatum 44

pectus excavatum 44

PEEP 429, 456

   see also: positive end-expiratory pressure

PEG feeding 161, 382

PEP

  bubble 237, 305, 469

  oscillatory 236

  see also: positive expiratory pressure

PEP tube 236

percussion 34, 232-4

   in the ICU 469

   for neonates 289

percussion note 47

percutaneous coronary intervention 138

percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy 160,161,382

peripheral arterial disease 130, 138-9

perfusion 15-16

  distribution 14

  gradient 14, 426

perioral stimulation 187

peripheral arterial disease 138-9, 321-2

peripheral nerve injuries 372

peripheral oedema 134

peripheral vascular disease

    see: peripheral arterial disease

peripheral vascular resistance 130

peritoneal dialysis 509

permissive hypercapnia 423

persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn 277

pertussis 298

pH 20-22, 23

pharyngeal muscles 8

pharynx 4

physiological PEEP 8

physiology

   of breathlessness 201

   cardiovascular 131, 134, 136

  respiratory 3-29

physiotherapy - see individual problems and conditions

PICC line 161

PICU 300

PIF 148

  see also: peak inspiratory flow

pigeon chest 44

Pilates 259

placebo effect 527

placements 533

plateau 424

plateau pressure 418

platelets 37, 454

plethysmography 65, 67

plethoric appearance 44, 78

pleural cavity 11

pleural disorders 105

pleural drains

  see: chest drains

pleural effusion 105-6

  on x-ray 55, 58, 457

pleural pressure 9, 229

pleural rub 52, 141

pleural surgery 385

pleurectomy 385

pleurisy 105

pleurodesis 385

pneumobelt 217

pneumoconioses 102

pneumomediastinum 424

pneumonectomy 383, 384, 385, 466

   and suction 244

pneumonia 57, 112-15, 184

   aspiration 114-5

  hospital-acquired 4, 115

  legionella 115

  lobar 114

  nosocomial 115

  pneumocystis 115

  ventilator-associated 389, 461

pneumopericardium 425, 426

pneumotachograph 65

pneumothorax 56, 106-7, 110, 424

   in cystic fibrosis 96, 100

  tension 480, 481

PO2 16

poisoning 508

polychondritis 170-2

polycythaemia 37, 44, 78

polypharmacy 160, 349

portable x-ray 52

portal hypertension 96, 121

positioning 13-14

  for ARDS 516-18

  for breathlessness 205-7, 486

  in children 305

  for gas exchange 182-4

  for lung volume 180-3, 461

  in neonates 288

  postoperative 379

  for pulmonary oedema 312

  with reflux 122

positive end-expiratory pressure 427-8,428-30

  intrinsic 427

  see also: PEEP

positive expiratory pressure 234-8

  for cystic fibrosis 99

postoperative audit 532

postoperative care 378-96

  in children 300

postoperative complications 370-3, 378

postoperative physiotherapy 378-81

post-polio syndrome 109

post-traumatic stress disorder 413

  in children 299

  and grief 357

postural drainage 232-3

  for cystic fibrosis 99

  in children 305

   in the ICU 468

   in neonates 289

postural hypotension 180, 346, 347

posture 28, 43

potassium 36, 454

PowerBreathe 265

precautions

  in children 304

   in infants 286

  on mobilisation 180, 476

  see also the individual procedures

  see also: safety

prednisolone 164

prednisone 164

preload 133, 434, 442

premature infants 275

prematurity 276

preoperative care 373

   in children 299-300

pressure area care 461

pressure control ventilation 418

pressure support ventilation 420-1, 422

pressure-time curve/waveform

   190,191,418,419,420,422,423,429,441

pressure-volume curve 10, 77

pressure-volume loop 11

pressures 9

  alveolar 9, 11

  intrapleural 9

  intrathoracic 9

  pleural 9, 229

  transpulmonary 11

primary ciliary dyskinesia 92, 100-1

probiotics 165

prone 12, 183, 516-18

  in infants 288

propofol 437

proportional assist ventilation 421, 422

proprioceptive pathways 202

prostacycline 437

prothrombin 37, 454

PTSD 413, 437

  see also: post-traumatic stress disorder

Pulmicort 164

pulmonary artery 130, 447

pulmonary artery catheter 443, 444, 447

pulmonary artery occlusion pressure 444

pulmonary artery pressure 130, 443, 445, 514

pulmonary artery wedge pressure 443, 445

  see also: PAWP

pulmonary capillary wedge pressure 444

pulmonary circulation 7, 15

pulmonary embolism 131, 141

  postoperative 372

  see also: PE

pulmonary haemorrhage 96, 277

pulmonary hypertension 16, 54, 78, 130, 443

pulmonary interstitial emphysema 424

   in neonates 284

pulmonary oedema 134-5, 233, 312, 323

   in ARDS 514

  assessment 47, 445

  non-cardiogenic 135, 513

  re-expansion 107

  and suction 244

pulmonary rehabilitation 251-72

pulmonary vasodilator drugs 130, 436-7

pulse pressure 455

pulsus paradoxus 480

pursed lips breathing 211

pyrexia 35

 

quadriplegia 500-3

quality of life 37, 38, 41, 62

  measurement 351

questionnaires

  for pulmonary rehabilitation 254

  see also: outcomes

  see also the individual disorders

Qvar 164

 

radiographs 52-60

radiotherapy 34, 118

rapid eye movement sleep 146

rate of perceived exertion 255, 316

reassurance 358

recruitment 423, 424, 425, 466, 513

recruitment manoeuvres 466, 515-16

red blood cells 37

refeeding syndrome 435

reflective practice 534

referrals 531

reflection 526

rehabilitation

  cardiac 315-21

  in elderly people 350, 351

  in the ICU 472-5

  in infants 292

  in palliative care 356, 359

  pulmonary 251-72

relative humidity 226

relatives 357, 413-14

  see also: family

relaxation 208, 268, 321, 337

REM sleep 27

   and oxygen 144, 155

  see also: rapid eye movement sleep

renin 131

reperfusion injury 493, 512

research 525, 527

reservoir masks 148-9

residual volume 24,  63

resistance to airflow 9-11

Respimat 167

respiration 12

respiratory arrest 479

respiratory centres 7, 203, 329

respiratory control 7

respiratory distress syndrome 278

respiratory drive 7

   and workload 202

   and oxygen 153

respiratory failure 78, 79, 123-4

respiratory function tests 61-9

respiratory insufficiency 123

respiratory muscle function 68

respiratory muscle training 109-11, 264-6

  see also: inspiratory muscle training

respiratory muscles 7-8, 68

  dysfunction/fatigue 8, 79

respiratory pump 8,12, 123

respiratory rate/RR 12, 43, 432

   in infants 275, 286

  in children 304

respiratory stimulant 165

respiratory tract infection 112

Respivol 186, 188

rest 208, 212, 458, 208

restlessness 364, 456

restrictive defect  63, 64, 66, 73, 101-12

resuscitation

  cardiopulmonary 32, 478

  in palliative care 356

retinopathy of prematurity 283

retrolental fibroplasia

   see: retinopathy of prematurity

revascularisation 135

rheumatoid disease 103

rhythmic breathing 209

rib cage 8-9

  in infants 276

rib fracture 234, 505

rib springing 186

right atrial pressure 442

right ventricular failure 134

ring shadows on x-ray 57

Ringer-Lactate solution 434

rise time 214

rocking bed ventilator 217

rollator 267

RV 62, 63, 65, 66

  see also: residual volume

 

safety

   with exercise training 261

   with mobilisation 180

  see also: precautions

sail sign on x-ray 58, 94

salbutamol 162, 164

saline instillation 471-2

saline nebulizer 165, 226, 468

salmeterol 162, 164

SaO2 16, 17, 441

   see also: SpO2

sarcoidosis 103

sarcopaenia 158

saturation boundary 225

scalenes 8

scleroderma 103

secretions 223-5

   assessment for 40, 47, 457

   to clear 223-50, 467-72

    in breathless patients 208, 486

    in children 305

    in infants 289

    and rehabilitation 473

   excess 223-4

   frothy 135

   in palliative care 364

   postoperative 380

   thick 226, 229, 239

   see also: sputum

sedation 362

sedatives 437

seizures 233, 479

sepsis 510-11

septic shock 511

septicaemia 510

Seretide 164

Serevent 164

sexuality 259

SGRQ 255

 see also: St George's Respiratory

   Questionnaire

Shaker 237-8

shaking 234

shallow breathing 209

shock 510, 511

  anaphylactic 511

  cardiogenic 511

  hypovolaemic 443, 511

  neurogenic 511

  septic 23, 511

shortness of breath 200

   assessment 38-8

  in pulmonary oedema 134

   with pulmonary rehabilitation 252

   see also: breathlessness, dyspnoea

shunt 16, 18, 146, 514

    postoperative 371

shuttle walk test 156, 256, 318

sickle cell disease 121-2

side-lying 181-3

sildenafil 135, 163

silent chest 87

singing 268

Singulair 164

sinus bradycardia 445

sinus rhythm 445

sinus tachycardia 445

sitting 27, 181

six-minute walk test 84, 156, 256

skin turgor 48

sleep 26-7, 41

  in breathless patients 208

  drugs for 166

  in elderly people 347

  in the ICU 411, 458

   in neonates 281

  and oxygen 146-7, 155

sleep apnoea 119-20

sleeve resection 383-4

slumped 181-2

SMART goals 178

smoke inhalation 506-8

smoking 25-6

  and cancer 356

  cessation 137,258

  passive 4,25

sniff 186,210

sniff nasal inspiratory pressure 68

SOB see: shortness of breath

sodium 36

soft tissue recession 42-3, 78

  in infants 287

sol layer 5,6

spacers 166-7, 438

speaking tracheostomy tube 459

speech 8

speech-language therapy/SLT 107-8, 110, 459

spinal cord compression 118-9

spinal cord lesion 233

   see also: quadriplegia

spinal cord stimulation 139

spinal muscular atrophy 299

spinal shock 502

Spiriva 164

spirograms 63-4

spirometry 64

SpO2 16, 441, 456

  target 146-7, 152-3

sputum

  assessment 45-6

  see also: secretions

sputum induction 46, Appendix C

sputum retention 223-50

   with breathlessness 208

   postoperative 371

   see also: secretions

sputum specimen 46

   in children 306

square breathing 211

St George's Respiratory Questionnaire 95

  see also: SGRQ

ST-segment elevation MI 137

stairs 180

standard bicarbonate 21

standards 528-9

standing 27-8

statins 137, 140

steam inhalation 226

stent 138, 140

sternal instability 390

sternotomy 370, 389

steroids 161-2

stethoscope 48, 49

Stokes Adams attack 446

strength training 261

stress 26, 267-8

  in CV disease 132, 136-7

  in neonates 280

  in respiratory disease 267-8

  incontinence 93, 95, 100, 241, 348

stridor 52, 118, 157, 243, 362

  in children 297, 298, 302

stroke 109, 146

stroke volume 130-1, 133

subcutaneous emphysema 47,384,424,425

suction 242-7

   catheters 243

   for children 306, 307

   in the ICU 469-72

   closed 469, 470, 472

    open 471, 472

   for infants 290-2

   nasopharyngeal 243

   pressures 244

sudden infant death syndrome 288

suicide, attempted 508

superior vena cava obstruction 118

supine 28, 182

supplementary feeds 160

supraventricular tachycardia 445

surface markings 50

surface tension 8, 10

surfactant 10, 514

  in neonates 278, 287

surgery 369-405

  abdominal 381-3

  bariatric 383

  in children 299-300

  complications 370-3, 382

  heart 389-91

  keyhole 369

  laparoscopic 381

  lung 383

   lung volume reduction 384

   minimal-access 383, 369, 389

  pleural 285

surgical emphysema

  see: subcutaneous emphysema 

sustained maximal inspiration

  see: end-inspiratory hold

swallow 4, 109, 111, 362, 459

Swan-Ganz catheter 443

Swedish nose 228, 399, 400

swimming 266

Symbicort 164

sympathetic receptors 162

symptoms 38

synchronised intermittent mandatory ventilation 420,422

syncope 41

systemic disease 119

systemic inflammatory response syndrome 510

systemic lupus erythematosus 103

systemic sclerosis 103

systolic 130

 

tachycardia 35

  in children 300

tachypnoea 43, 200

tactile vocal fremitus 48

T'ai Chi 211, 269, 349

tamponade 390, 443, 480

tank ventilator 217

target oxygen saturation 146-7, 152-3

teamwork 373, 416, 500

  see also: multidisciplinary care

TED stockings 140

teenagers 296

telemedicine 477

telemonitoring 135

temperature

  core 34, 454

   peripheral 454

TENS 378

tension pneumothorax 480, 481

terbutaline 162, 164

terminal disease

  see: palliative care

tetraplegia 500

theophylline 162-5

TheraPEP 235

thirst 362, 455, 456

thoracic expansion exercises 184

thoracic mobility 207

thoracoplasty 384

thoracoscopy 383

thoracotomy 383, 184

thrombocytopaenia 37

thromboembolism 140-1

thrombolytic therapy 141

thrombosis 140

thrombus 136-7, 140-1

tidal volume 12, 13, 63, 66, 192

Tilade 164

tilt table 461, 457, 502, 504

tiotropium 162, 164, 167

TLC 62, 63, 65, 66

  see also: total lung capacity

TLCO 67

tonsils 4

total lung capacity 61, 24

total lung transfer capacity for carbon

  monoxide 67

T-piece 152

trachea on x-ray 53

tracheal deviation 48, 384

tracheal tubes 417

tracheal tug 48

  in infants 287

tracheobronchomalacia 279

tracheoesophageal fistula 399

tracheostomy 396-402, 417

  blocked 401

  button 397, 398

  in children 303

  cuff 396-7, 398, 399, 401

  decannulation 433

   for mechanical ventilation 417

  silver tube 397, 398

  tube change 401

transcutaneous monitoring 442

transdiaphragmatic pressure 68

transfer factor 67

transfer from the ICU 475

transition clinic 296

transplantation 391-3

  in cystic fibrosis 98

transtracheal catheter 151-2

transudates 105

trauma 504-8

  in children 299

  to the head/neck 233

Triflo 187, 189

trigeminy 446

troponin 137

tuberculosis 116

tumour 183, 184, 191

  see also: cancer

Turbohaler 166-7

turbulence 51, 117, 185

turning 27, 460

tusk mask 149-50

twitch transdiaphragmatic pressure 68

two-minute walk test 318

Type I respiratory failure 123, 212

Type II respiratory failure 123, 191, 212

 

ulcerative colitis 123

ultrasonic nebulizer 226

ultrasound 61

unconscious patient 455, 459

underwater seal drains 387

   see also: chest drains

upper lobe diversion 16

upper respiratory tract infection 112

urea 37

urinary incontinence 372

urine 35-6, 442, 455

  output 36

  retention 372

 

VAP bundle 417

vapour 226

vascular markings 55

vascular pressures 445

vasoconstrictors 436

vasodilators 436

   pulmonary 130, 436

VC 62, 63, 66

   see also: vital capacity

venous admixture 16

venous return 28, 421, 424

ventilation 12-14

  alveolar 12

  dead space 12

  distribution 13-14

  gradient 13, 14, 182-3, 426, 427

  mechanical see: mechanical ventilation

ventilation-perfusion imaging 60

ventilation-perfusion ratio 16

  see also: V?A/Q?

ventilator 456

  distress with 482-3

   malfunction 482

   settings 423-4

  see also: mechanical ventilation

ventilator hyperinflation 466

ventilator-induced lung injury 423, 425

ventilatory failure 123

   and NIV 212

Ventolin 164

ventricular assist device 439

ventricular ectopics 446

ventricular fibrillation 446

ventricular tachycardia 445

Venturi mask 146, 148-9

Vest 238

Viagra 163

vibrations 34, 232-4

  for breathlessness 206

  in the ICU 469

  for neonates 289-90

videofluoroscopy 60, 108

Virchow's triad 140

viruses 112

visual analogue scale 38, 218

vital capacity 13, 61, 65

vital signs 34, 35, 36

vocal cord dysfunction 341

vocal resonance 52

voice sounds 52

Voldyne 186, 188

volume control ventilation 418

volume loss 177-97

  with breathlessness 208

  in infants 288

volutrauma 424, 516

VT 62, 63

  see also: tidal volume

VA/Q 18

  match/mismatch 16, 18, 182, 78, 426

  ratio 18

  see also: ventilation/perfusion ratio 

VO2 23, 511, 513, 516

  see also: oxygen consumption

VO2max 27 ,68

 

warm up 262

wasting 158

Waters bag 464

weakness 41, 107-11

  in palliative care 361

weaning 431-3

  from NIV 217

wedge resection 383

wheeze 40, 51, 456

whispering pectoriloquy 52

white blood cells 37

white cell count 37

whooping cough 298

Wii 474

WOB 419

  see also: work of breathing

work of breathing 10-12, 199

  in children 305

   in COPD 77, 492

  in infants 275, 289

  methods to decrease 199-221

   and positioning 181

  see also: WOB

wound dehiscence 372

wound infection 372

x-rays 52-60, 457-8

  normal 53

 

yawning 7

yoga 259, 268, 349

yoga breathing 211

 

zafirlukast 164

zolpidem 166

zones of the lungs 15

 

Abbreviations

  • AIDS: acquired immune deficiency syndrome
  • CPP: cerebral perfusion pressure
  • CV: cardiovascular
  • ECMO: extracorporeal membrane oxygenation
  • FEF: forced expiratory flow
  • HIV: human immunodeficiency virus
  • IPAP: inspiratory positive airway pressure
  • ICP: intracranial pressure
  • ICU: intensive care unit
  • MAP: mean arterial pressure
  • MRC: Medical Research Council
  • PEG: percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy
  • PICC: peripherally inserted central catheter
  • SGRQ: St George's Respiratory Questionnaire
  • TED: thrombo-embolus deterrent
  • VA/Q: ventilation/perfusion ratio
  • VO2: oxygen consumption

 

 


??